Table 1

Participant characteristics

Total sampleNortheastMidwest
n276126150
Age (years)15.6 ± 1.415.8 ± 1.415.5 ± 1.4
Female sex47.542.951.3
Ethnicity (non-Hispanic white)87.388.986.0
Caregiver marital status (married)80.484.177.3
Primary caregiver (mother)82.677.886.7
Education level of primary caregiver (at least a college degree)54.062.746.7
Insurance status (private)84.485.783.3
Type 1 diabetes duration (years)6.6 ± 1.817.3 ± 4.06.0 ± 3.9
A1C (%)8.9 ± 1.89.0 ± 1.78.8 ± 1.9
BGM frequency (times daily)3.83 ± 1.454.08 ± 1.383.61 ± 1.48
Method of insulin delivery
    Multiple daily injections44.954.836.7
    CSII55.145.263.3
CDI score7.3 ± 6.46.5 ± 5.48.0 ± 7.1
  • Data are means ± SD or % unless otherwise indicated. CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.