Table 1

Baseline characteristics and mean changes in primary and secondary outcomes over 12 weeks

Baseline characteristics
Mean change between baseline and follow-up*
ControlInterventionControlInterventionDifference between groupsP
n4038
Primary outcome measures
    Daily step count10,900 (8,324–13,240)11,242 (8,380–13,537)−840 (−1,947 to 266)−22 (−1,407 to 1,364)819 (−916 to 2,554)0.4
    Moderate and vigorous physical activity (min/week)§645 (298–895)712 (420–1,000)38.5 (−95 to 172)48.4 (−89 to 185)9.9 (−178 to 198)0.9
Secondary outcome measures
    A1C (%)8.50 (7.55–9.3)7.95 (7.3–9.1)−0.02 (−0.38 to 0.34)0.35 (−0.12 to 0.83)0.38 (−0.21 to 0.96)0.2
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)114 (104–123)115 (106–126)−2.1 (−9.1 to 4.8)−0.0 (−8.8 to 8.8)2.1 (−8.9 to 13.1)0.7
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)67 (60–72)65 (60–67)−2.0 (−6.8 to 2.8)−0.7 (−6.2 to 4.9)1.3 (−5.8 to 8.5)0.7
    BMI Z score0.64 (0.05–0.98)0.62 (0.25–1.17)0.016 (−0.08 to 0.11)0.006 (−0.07 to 0.09)−0.009 (−0.13 to 0.12)0.9
    Quality of life (SQOL)54.9 (53.8–55.8)55.0 (54.1–56.4)0.21 (−0.18 to 0.61)−0.71 (−1.59 to 0.17)−0.93 (−1.86 to 0.00)0.06
Other measures
    Insulin total daily dose (units/kg)1.1 (1–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.6)0.013 (−0.023 to 0.12)0.015 (−0.016 to 0.136)0.002 (0.006–0.01)0.6
  • *Intention-to-treat analysis assumed that in subjects whose follow-up data were missing (n = 4 [5%]) there was no change in outcome variable between baseline and follow-up.

  • †Median (interquartile range);

  • ‡(95% CI); §self-reported from the physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ). SQOL, subjective quality of life (13).