Table 2

Adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of A1C above the median (A1C >5.2%) in adults aged ≥20 years without diagnosed diabetes and with normal fasting glucose and normal A1C levels, U.S. 1999–2006

VariableOR (95% CI)
Model 1Model 2
n4,6224,256
Age-group
    20–39 years1.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    40–59 years2.8 (2.4–3.4)*2.7 (2.2–3.3)*
    60–69 years4.6 (3.6–5.8)*3.3 (2.4–4.6)*
    ≥70 years6.9 (5.1–9.3)*6.0 (3.9–9.1)*
Sex
    Female1.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Male1.4 (1.2–1.7)*1.5 (1.2–1.9)*
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic white1.0 (referent)1.0 (referent)
    Non-Hispanic black2.9 (2.4–3.7)*2.4 (1.8–3.1)*
    Mexican American1.7 (1.3–2.2)*1.4 (1.0–1.8)*
    Other1.8 (1.3–2.5)*1.9 (1.4–2.6)*
Hypertension (yes vs. no)1.2 (0.9–1.5)
Hypercholesterolemia (yes vs. no)1.4 (1.2–1.7)*
Smoking
    Never smoker1.0 (referent)
    Former smoker1.0 (0.8–1.2)
    Current smoker1.5 (1.2–1.9)*
BMI
    <25 kg/m21.0 (referent)
    25–<30 kg/m21.2 (0.9–1.5)
    ≥30 kg/m21.9 (1.4–2.7)*
Education
    Post high school1.0 (referent)
    High school or equivalent1.3 (1.0–1.7)*
    Less than high school1.5 (1.2–1.9)*
History of cardiovascular disease0.9 (0.7–1.3)
Alcohol consumption
    Never1.0 (referent)
    Former0.8 (0.5–1.1)
    Current0.6 (0.5–0.8)*
C-reactive protein quartiles
    0.01–<0.08 mg/dl1.0 (referent)
    0.08–<0.19 mg/dl1.0 (0.8–1.4)
    0.19–<0.44 mg/dl1.1 (0.8–1.4)
    0.44–29.6 mg/dl1.1 (0.8–1.6)
  • Model 1: age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Model 2: all variables in model 1 plus hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, BMI, education, history of cardiovascular disease, alcohol consumption, and C-reactive protein categories. Absence of diabetes with normal fasting glucose indicates no history of diabetes and FPG <100 mg/dl; normal A1C level indicates A1C <6%.

  • *P < 0.05.