Table 3

Stratified analysis to examine the effects of characteristics of studies and patients on each metabolic profile

FPG
Fasting insulin
Triglycerides
Total cholesterol
HDL cholesterol
LDL cholesterol
NPercent change (95% CI)NPercent change (95% CI)NPercent change (95% CI)NPercent change (95% CI)NPercent change (95% CI)NPercent change (95% CI)
Study with washout period or baseline data
    Neither*100.9 (−4.6 to 6.3)109.0 (−1.7 to 19.7)1018.2 (7.3–29.1)90.7 (−4.2 to 5.5)9−6.8 (−10.3 to −3.2)5−0.7 (−8 to 6.6)
    Others120.0 (−3.8 to 3.7)128.0 (−1.6 to 17.6)11.0 (3.2–18.8)112.2 (−1.5 to 5.8)11−4.0 (−8.2 to 0.3)110.5 (−4.2 to 5.1)
Period <4 weeks101.3 (−2.9 to 5.5)1015.2 (3.1–27.3)1015.8 (4.9–26.6)101.7 (−3 to 6.4)10−7.3 (−10.9 to −3.6)60.8 (−7.5 to 9.1)
Period ≥4 weeks12−1 (−5.5 to 3.6)124.9 (−3.9 to 13.7)1212.2 (4.4–20)101.6 (−2.1 to 5.3)10−3.6 (−7.7 to 0.6)100.0 (−4.5 to 4.4)
<50% of subjects female130.4 (−3.3 to 4.1)136.2 (−3.4 to 15.9)1313.7 (5.8–21.6)112 (−1.8 to 5.9)11−3.4 (−8.1 to 1.2)100.6 (−4.6 to 5.8)
≥50% of subjects female51.6 (−4.6 to 7.8)511.5 (−0.1 to 23.2)515.1 (2.8–27.3)51.8 (−3.8 to 7.4)5−7.4 (−11 to −3.7)4−0.5 (−7 to 6.1)
Mean age <55 years10−0.2 (−4.1 to 3.7)1017.2 (6.7–27.8)1012.7 (4.6–20.8)81.2 (−3.9 to 6.2)8−5.8 (−9.2 to −2.4)4−0.6 (−7.5 to 6.3)
Mean age ≥55 years111.2 (−3.9 to 6.4)111.7 (−8.2 to 11.7)1115.1 (4.5–25.7)111.9 (−1.7 to 5.5)11−5.6 (−10.3 to −0.8)110.7 (−4.2 to 5.5)
BMI <28.0 kg/m2121.9 (−2.8 to 6.6)1218.2 (7.6–28.8)1212.5 (4.6–20.4)101.2 (−3.5 to 5.8)10−7.8 (−11.6 to −4.1)6−0.9 (−8.6 to 6.9)
BMI ≥28.0 kg/m210−1 (−5.1 to 3.1)100.3 (−9.4 to 9.9)1015.1 (4.6–25.7)101.9 (−1.8 to 5.6)10−3.1 (−7.1 to 0.9)100.5 (−4.1 to 5)
Taking hypoglycemic agents18−0.6 (−4.1 to 2.9)184.4 (−3.8 to 12.7)§1815.4 (6.9–23.8)171.5 (−1.5 to 4.6)17−3.1 (−6.6 to 0.4)150.1 (−3.8 to 4.1)
Not taking hypoglycemic agents42.9 (−3.3 to 9.1)420.7 (6.3–35.1)§410.9 (1.4–20.5)32.6 (−6.7 to 11.8)3−9.4 (−13.7 to −5.1)10 (−31.8 to 31.8)
C/F ratio in LFHC ≥380.5 (−5.5 to 6.5)817.1 (5.7–28.6)§89.3 (−0.9 to 19.4)7−0.1 (−5.4 to 5.1)7−4.6 (−10.9 to 1.6)4−3.1 (−11.4 to 5.2)
C/F ratio in LFHC <3140.2 (−3.4 to 3.8)142.9 (−6.2 to 12.1)§1416 (8–24.1)132.4 (−1.1 to 5.9)13−5.9 (−8.9 to −2.8)121.1 (−3.4 to 5.5)
C/F ratio in HFLC ≤1120.2 (−3.8 to 4.2)128.1 (−4 to 20.2)1218.7 (8.3–29.1)111.2 (−2.7 to 5)11−4.2 (−9.1 to 0.6)8−0.6 (−6.4 to 5.2)
C/F ratio in HFLC >1100.4 (−4.5 to 5.2)108.6 (−0.2 to 17.5)1010.4 (2.4–18.3)92.2 (−2.2 to 6.6)9−6.3 (−9.6 to −3)80.8 (−4.5 to 6.1)
MUFA diet in HFLC diet111.9 (−3.9 to 7.7)115.2 (−4.9 to 15.2)1121.0 (10.2–31.7)§103.1 (−1.1 to 7.2)10−4.3 (−9.4 to 0.8)72.8 (−3.4 to 8.9)
No MUFA diet in HFLC diet11−0.4 (−4.0 to 3.3)1111.8 (1.7–22)119.4 (1.6–17.2)§100.2 (−3.8 to 4.3)10−6.2 (−9.4 to −3)9−1.6 (−6.7 to 3.4)
WL diet in LFHC and HFLC diets4−2.1 (−9.6 to 5.5)412.5 (−1 to 25.9)44.0 (−7.1 to 15.2)31.3 (−6 to 8.5)3−3.9 (−12.4 to 4.6)31.9 (−7.4 to 11.2)
No WL diet in LFHC and HFLC diets180.7 (−2.7 to 4.1)186.9 (−1.5 to 15.3)1817.9 (10.2–25.5)171.7 (−1.5 to 4.9)17−5.8 (−8.7 to −3)13−0.2 (−4.6 to 4.1)
  • *Studies having neither a washout period nor baseline data.

  • †Parallel study design or cross-sectional design studies that have a washout period and/or baseline data.

  • P < 0.01;

  • §P < 0.05. WL diet, energy intake restricted for weight loss.