Table 1

Baseline clinical and biochemical characteristics and end of study clinical events in 205 type 2 diabetic patients with renal insufficiency randomly assigned to receive either structured or usual care for 2 years

Structured careUsual care
At baseline
    n104101
    Age (years)64.6 ± 7.565.4 ± 6.9
    Male sex (%)6667
    Duration of diabetes (years)14.4 ± 7.913.8 ± 7.9
    BMI (kg/m2)25.4 ± 3.525.4 ± 3.8
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)145 ± 23.7144 ± 26.7
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 11.774 ± 10
    Waist circumference (cm)90.1 ± 9.289.3 ± 9.0
    Waist-to-hip ratio0.95 ± 0.060.94 ± 0.06
    Coexisting diseases (%)
        Hypertension9696
        Coronary heart disease*1912
        Congestive heart failure87
        Myocardial infarction13
        Revascularization23
        Peripheral vascular disease11
        History of cerebrovascular accident1416
        Retinopathy5038
        Sensory neuropathy2034
    Medications (%)
        ACE inhibitor or ARB7756
        Aspirin3730
        Statin4842
        Fibrate98
        Insulin6158
        No. of blood pressure–lowering drugs2.9 ± 1.22.4 ± 1.1
At 2 years
    No. of patients with composite renal end point2424
        ESRD (Cr >500 μmol/l)1615
        Dialysis108
        Death811
    No. of patients with composite cardiovascular end point2119
        Hospitalization for heart failure1315
        Hospitalization for angina10
        Hospitalization for arrhythmia51
        Myocardial infarction44
        Revascularization (PTCA/CABG)11
        Other revascularization10
        CVA or transient ischemic attack23
        Lower-limb amputation10
    Emergency room visits (n)1 (0–8)1 (0–18)
    Hospitalizations (n)1 (0–15)1 (0–13)
    Days of hospitalization2 (0–93)2 (0–116)
  • Data are means ± SD, n, %, or median (range). P values comparing SC and UC: all NS.

  • *Coronary heart disease includes symptoms of angina or an abnormal electrocardiogram with confirmed stress test and/or coronary angiogram. CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; Cr, serum creatinine; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; PTCA, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.