Table 1

Serious adverse outcomes (congenital malformations and/or perinatal mortality) in offspring of women with type 1 diabetes and background population according to peri-conceptional glycemic control

A1C (%)*z score (SD > mean)Number of patientsCongenital malformations (%)RR (95% CI) vs. background populationPerinatal mortality (%)RR (95% CI) vs. background populationSerious adverse outcome (%)RR (95% CI) vs. background population
≥10.4≥105510.93.9 (1.8–7.8)5.57.3 (2.5–19.8)16.34.7 (2.5–8.1)
8.9–10.37.0–9.91283.91.4 (0.6–3.1)6.38.3 (4.2–15.9)7.82.2 (1.2–3.9)
7.9–8.85.0–6.91825.01.8 (0.9–3.3)3.34.4 (2.0–9.4)7.72.2 (1.3–3.6)
6.9–7.83.0–4.92844.91.8 (1.0–2.9)2.83.8 (1.9–7.3)7.72.2 (1.5–3.3)
<6.9<3.02843.91.4 (0.8–2.4)2.12.8 (1.3–6.1)5.61.6 (1.0–2.6)
Background population (n = 70,089)2.81.00.751.03.51.0
  • *Standard reference 5.4 ± 1.0 (mean ± 2 SD) in the nondiabetic background population.

  • †Significantly higher than background population at significance level of 0.05. RR, relative risk.