Table 2

Reported dietary intake assessed by 3-day food record at baseline and the final visit

Low–glycemic index groupHigh–glycemic index group, no insulinHigh–glycemic index to low–glycemic index groupP value*P value
n3113 (final 12)19 (final 18)
Energy (cal)
    Baseline visit1,994 ± 721,932 ± 1461,914 ± 880.500.91
    Final visit1,713 ± 661,664 ± 791,651 ± 730.630.91
    Change (P value)−281 ± 79 (0.001)−251 ± 140 (0.10)−262 ± 119 (0.042)
Protein (% energy)
    Baseline visit18.4 ± 0.620.9 ± 1.321.7 ± 1.20.0090.64
    Final visit23.9 ± 0.723.5 ± 0.824.4 ± 0.70.510.41
    Change (P value)+5.5 ± 0.9 (<0.001)+2.2 ± 1.1 (0.070)+2.7 ± 1.2 (0.041)
Carbohydrate (% energy)
    Baseline visit45.0 ± 1.042.2 ± 1.145.1 ± 2.00.500.28
    Final visit36.7 ± 1.137.8 ± 1.135.1 ± 1.50.800.21
    Change (P value)−8.3 ± 1.1 (<0.001)−4.3 ± 1.3 (0.006)−10.4 ± 2.5 (<0.001)
Fat (% energy)
    Baseline visit31.7 ± 0.832.5 ± 1.331.7 ± 1.70.810.74
    Final visit33.4 ± 1.134.0 ± 1.234.5 ± 1.80.570.79
    Change (P value)+1.7 ± 1.0 (0.11)+1.6 ± 1.7 (0.36)+3.0 ± 2.2 (0.19)
Fiber (g)
    Baseline visit25.4 ± 1.323.1 ± 1.224.0 ± 1.50.300.66
    Final visit25.6 ± 1.322.9 ± 1.122.3 ± 1.60.130.77
    Change (P value)+0.3 ± 1.4 (0.86)+0.3 ± 1.5 (0.84)−1.9 ± 1.7 (0.28)
  • Data are means ± SEM.

  • *Comparison of low–glycemic index group with high–glycemic index group (high–glycemic index groups combined).

  • †Comparing those who changed to a low–glycemic index diet with those continuing to consume a high–glycemic index diet.

  • ‡Comparisons from baseline to final visit (§for those with baseline and final visits only).