Table 1

Summary data of selected randomized controlled trials of intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients (>200 randomized patients)a

TrialNSettingBlood glucose target [mg/dl (mmol/l)]
Blood glucose achieved [mg/dl (mmol/l)]b
Primary outcomeEnd point rate (%)
ARR (%)cRRR (%)cOdds ratio (95% CI)
IntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventional
DIGAMI (ref. 33), 1995620CCU (AMI)126–196 (7–10.9)Usual care173 (9.6)211 (11.7)1-year mortality18.626.17.529dNR
Van den Berghe et al. (ref. 5), 20011,548SICU80–110 (4.4–6.1)180–200 (10–11)103 (5.7)153 (8.5)ICU mortality4.68.03.4420.58(0.38–0.78)d
DIGAMI 2 (ref. 34), 20051,253CCU (AMI)126–180 (7–10) (groups 1 and 2)Usual care (group 3)164 (9.1)180 (10)2-year mortalityGroup 1, 23.4; group 2, 21.2Group 3, 17.9eeNR
Van den Berghe et al. (ref. 16), 20061,200MICU80–110 (4.4–6.1)180–200 (10–11)111 (6.2)153 (8.5)Hospital mortality37.340.02.77.00.94(0.84–1.06)e
HI-5 (ref. 35), 2006240CCU (Ami) (GIK)72–180 (4–10)Usual care <288149 (8.3)162 (9)6-month mortality7.96.1−1.8e−30eNR
GluControl (ref. 27), 2007f1,101ICU80–110 (4.4–6.1)140–180 (7.8–10)118 (6.5)144 (8)ICU mortality16.715.2−1.5−101.10(0.84–1.44)e
Gandhi et al. (ref. 36), 2007399Operating room80–110 (4.4–6.1)<200 (<11)114 (6.3)157 (8.7)Compositeg444624.31.0(0.8–1.2)e
VISEP (ref. 13), 2008537hICU80–110 (4.4–6.1)180–200 (10–11)112 (6.2)151 (8.4)28-day mortality24.726.01.35.00.89(0.58–1.38)e,i
De La Rosa et al. (ref. 28), 2008f504SICU MICU80–110 (4.4–6.1)180–200 (10–11)117 (6.5)148 (8.2)28-day mortality36.632.4−4.2e−13eNR
NICE-SUGAR (ref. 14), 20096,104ICU81–108 (4.5–6)≤180 (≤10)115 (6.4)145 (8.0)3-month mortality27.524.9−2.6−10.61.14(1.02–1.28)d
  • aARR, absolute risk reduction; CCU, coronary care unit; GIK, glucose-insulin-potassium; MICU, medical ICU; NR, not reported; RRR, relative risk reduction; SICU, surgical ICU.

  • bMean morning blood glucose concentrations (except for GluControl, which reported mean overall blood glucose concentrations).

  • cIntensive group versus conventional group.

  • dP< 0.05.

  • eNot significant (P> 0.05).

  • fPresented as abstract only.

  • gComposite of death, sternal infection, prolonged ventilation, cardiac arrhythmias, stroke, and renal failure at 30 days.

  • hOnly patients with sepsis.

  • iPersonal communication, Dr. Frank Brunkhorst.