Table 1

Characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise or oral medications at baseline and with A1C ≥7.2: TRIAD 2000–2002

Total populationStayed the sameIntensified therapyPIntensified with oral medication(s)Intensified with insulinP
n1,093573520362158
Age59 ± 1261 ± 1258 ± 12<0.000158 ± 1257 ± 120.374
Male sex556 (51)298 (52)258 (50)0.430191 (53)67 (42)0.030
Race/ethnicity0.6650.584
    Hispanic184 (17)102 (18)82 (16)57 (16)25 (16)
    Black116 (11)65 (11)51 (10)32 (9)19 (12)
    White367 (34)186 (32)181 (35)124 (34)57 (36)
    Asian/Pacific Islander305 (28)161 (28)144 (28)107 (30)37 (23)
    Other121 (11)59 (10)62 (12)42 (12)20 (13)
Income0.3650.183
    <15,000 USD212 (19)113 (20)99 (19)61 (17)38 (24)
    15,000–40,000 USD368 (34)205 (36)163 (31)112 (31)51 (32)
    40,000–75,000 USD309 (28)154 (27)155 (30)112 (31)43 (27)
    >$75,000204 (19)101 (18)103 (20)77 (21)26 (16)
Education0.9100.129
    Some high school or less180 (16)95 (17)85 (16)57 (16)28 (18)
    High school graduate308 (28)157 (27)151 (29)98 (27)53 (34)
    Some college376 (34)202 (35)174 (33)121 (33)53 (34)
    ≥4 year college229 (21)119 (21)110 (21)86 (24)24 (15)
Diabetes duration (years)11 ± 1011 ± 1011 ± 90.7879.7 ± 9.212.6 ± 9.60.001
Baseline A1C8.9 ± 1.58.7 ± 1.49.1 ± 1.5<0.00019.0 ± 1.539.5 ± 1.50.002
Charlson index2.1 ± 1.52.2 ± 1.42.2 ± 1.60.9202.04 ± 1.662.43 ± 1.540.011
Baseline weight (pounds)192 ± 49188 ± 48196 ± 490.008193 ± 47201 ± 540.106
Baseline BMI (kg/m2)31.0 ± 7.130.5 ± 7.031.4 ± 7.20.03730.9 ± 7.032.5 ± 7.50.021
Baseline EQ-5D0.83 ± 0.170.84 ± 0.150.82 ± 0.180.0300.83 ± 0.170.78 ± 210.019
Baseline anxiety/depression0.0300.082
    None725 (72)394 (75)331 (69)239 (72)92 (63)
    Moderate250 (25)122 (23)128 (27)83 (25)45 (31)
    Extreme28 (3)9 (2)19 (4)10 (3)9 (6)
Smoking181 (17)85 (15)96 (18)0.107
Diabetes care provided by an endocrinologist79 (7)40 (7)39 (8)0.74124 (7)15 (10)0.254
Provider communication0.7470.651
    4–7 (poor)77 (8)37 (8)40 (9)25 (8)15 (11)
    8–11354 (38)187 (39)167 (37)117 (38)50 (35)
    12 (good)503 (54)260 (54)243 (54)167 (54)76 (54)
Number of PCP visits5.5 ± 3.65.2 ± 3.55.8 ± 3.70.0185.8 ± 3.57.2 ± 4.10.002
Hospitalized201 (18)102 (18)99 (19)0.59855 (15)44 (28)0.001
New onset cardiovascular disease66 (6)33 (6)33 (6)0.68418 (5)15 (10)0.152
New onset retinopathy124 (11)64 (11)60 (12)0.84835 (10)25 (16)0.043
New onset nephropathy91 (8)38 (7)53 (10)0.03327 (7)26 (16)0.002
New onset neuropathy112 (10)61 (11)51 (10)0.64836 (10)15 (10)0.874
New onset of any complication332 (30)172 (30)160 (31)0.78794 (26)66 (42)0.0003
Dry mouth309 (30)163 (30)146 (29)0.75797 (28)49 (31)0.452
Excessive thirst294 (29)157 (29)137 (28)0.66898 (29)39 (26)0.524
Nocturia513 (48)279 (50)234 (46)0.220166 (47)68 (43)0.406
  • Data are means ± SD or n(%). n = 1,093. PCP, primary care physician.