Table 1

Subject characteristics

Hypoglycemia unawareHypoglycemia awareP
n1931
Duration of observation (days)419 ± 139568 ± 2550.024
Age (years)47.5 ± 11.436.1 ± 10.20.001
Sex (% female)52.6 (10)71.0 (22)0.190
Duration type 1 diabetes (years)32.1 ± 12.920.5 ± 11.30.002
Weight (kg)70.4 ± 16.273.7 ± 13.30.449
BMI25.0 ± 5.026.1 ± 4.00.401
% Who did not attend7.5 ± 11.412.3 ± 12.40.174
% Completed DAFNE47.4 (9)61.3 (19)0.336
% Psychiatric history10.5 (2)29.2 (7)0.282
% Cognitive behavioral therapy10.5 (2)24.0 (6)0.409
% Retinopathy (any degree on retinal photography)*55.6 (10)61.3 (19)0.694
% Nephropathy (microalbuminuria/ proteinuria)*10.5 (2)29.0 (9)0.125
% Neuropathy (symptoms or sensory loss)*21.1 (4)9.7 (3)0.261
A1C (%)7.2 ± 0.78.3 ± 1.30.007
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−1)0.59 ± 0.160.77 ± 0.260.030
  • *Taken from annual review data during audit period. DAFNE, Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating, a 5-day structured education program in flexible insulin therapy for type 1 diabetic patients.