Table 1

Clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes from the NEFRON study stratified according to the presence and absence of renal impairment and albumin excretion rate

eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2
NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuria
n3,063506295119
Age (years)63 ± 173 ± 1*74 ± 1*71 ± 1*
Sex (% male)55 ± 136 ± 2*50 ± 4*57 ± 5*
Diabetes duration (years)8 ± 19 ± 1*11 ± 1*12 ± 1*
Caucasian (%)81 ± 191 ± 2*87 ± 2*74 ± 4*
Indigenous Australian (%)4 ± 11 ± 1*4 ± 1*10 ± 2*
Asian (%)11 ± 16 ± 1*6 ± 1*11 ± 3*
Weight (kg)86 ± 181 ± 1*81 ± 1*82 ± 2*
Height (cm)166 ± 1164 ± 1*165 ± 1*166 ± 1*
Smoking (% current)11 ± 15 ± 18 ± 213 ± 3
Smoking (% ex)32 ± 129 ± 235 ± 227 ± 4
A1C (%)7.4 ± 0.17.0 ± 0.17.3 ± 0.17.5 ± 0.2
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.0 ± 0.17.4 ± 0.17.8 ± 0.18.5 ± 0.1
Lipid-lowering therapy (%)63 ± 170 ± 274 ± 375 ± 4
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.5 ± 0.12.4 ± 0.12.3 ± 0.12.2 ± 0.1
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.11.2 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.1
Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.0 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.12.0 ± 0.12.2 ± 0.1
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133 ± 1135 ± 1134 ± 1137 ± 2
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 175 ± 175 ± 176 ± 1
Treatment for hypertension (%)67 ± 180 ± 186 ± 189 ± 2
No. of antihypertensive agents1.4 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.12.2 ± 0.12.5 ± 0.1
Duration of hypertension (years)10 ± 114 ± 115 ± 114 ± 2
Renin-angiotensin system blockade (%)67 ± 180 ± 184 ± 288 ± 3
Calcium channel blocker (%)24 ± 129 ± 236 ± 344 ± 5
Diuretic (%)24 ± 142 ± 244 ± 345 ± 5
Retinopathy (%)8 ± 110 ± 117 ± 225 ± 4
Visual impairment (%)15 ± 131 ± 338 ± 431 ± 5
Macrovascular disease (%)28 ± 141 ± 252 ± 355 ± 5
Treatment for heart failure (%)5 ± 114 ± 219 ± 219 ± 4
Atrial fibrillation (%)4 ± 17 ± 114 ± 28 ± 2
Anemia (%)13 ± 128 ± 244 ± 349 ± 5
Family history of renal disease (%)6 ± 19 ± 19 ± 213 ± 3
History of urinary tract infection (%)9 ± 113 ± 116 ± 218 ± 3
  • Data are means ± SEM.

  • *Univariate P < 0.01, included in multivariate adjustments.

  • P < 0.05 vs. eGFR >60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, body surface area, and ethnicity.

  • P < 0.05 vs. eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 + normoalbuminuria, adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, body surface area, and ethnicity.