Table 1

Changes in clinical and metabolic characteristics from baseline to years 1 and 3 in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial

BaselineChange from baseline to year 1Paired t test (df), PChange from baseline to year 3Paired t test (df), P
n352312266
Weight (kg)90.0 ± 16.6−0.8 ± 4.5t = 3.135 (299), P = 0.002−1.0 ± 5.6t = 3.042 (261), P = 0.003
BMI (kg/m2)32.6 ± 5.0−0.3 ± 1.6t = 2.988 (299), P = 0.003−0.5 ± 2.1t = 3.493 (261), P = 0.001
Waist circumference (cm)105.3 ± 12.3−1.6 ± 4.8t = 5.528 (291), P < 0.0010.1 ± 6.4NS
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.7 ± 0.80.1 ± 0.6t = 3.523 (309), P < 0.0010.0 ± 0.8NS
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)6.6 ± 1.70.1 ± 1.7NS0.1 ± 1.9NS
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.5 ± 1.0−0.1 ± 0.9t = 2.133 (311), P = 0.034−0.4 ± 1.1t = 6.573 (265), P < 0.001
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.5 ± 0.4−0.0 ± 0.3NS0.0 ± 0.3NS
Serum total cholesterol–to–HDL cholesterol ratio3.9 ± 1.0−0.0 ± 0.8NS−0.3 ± 1.5t = 3.196 (265), P = 0.002
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.6 ± 0.8−0.07 ± 0.63NS−0.14 ± 0.61t = 3.745 (265), P < 0.001
  • Data are mean change ± SD. Values in bold are statistically significant differences between measurement points.