Table 2

Counterregulatory hormone levels at baseline and at the end of the hypoglycemic clamp

Middle-aged patientsOlder patientsP
n1313
Epinephrine (pmol/l)
    Baseline233 ± 62191 ± 470.59
    Hypoglycemia874 ± 176786 ± 3130.81
Norepinephrine (μmol/l)
    Baseline2,177 ± 3242,021 ± 2060.69
    Hypoglycemia2,504 ± 3052,563 ± 2500.88
ACTH (pmol/l)
    Baseline4.99 ± 0.8904.57 ± 0.6430.70
    Hypoglycemia12.72 ± 3.2177.10 ± 1.9200.15
Cortisol (nmol/l)
    Baseline387 ± 41426 ± 350.47
    Hypoglycemia548 ± 58476 ± 440.33
Growth hormone (pmol/l)
    Baseline26.9 ± 11.650.4 ± 25.20.41
    Hypoglycemia250.4 ± 59.5245.6 ± 135.70.98
Glucagon (pmol/l)
    Baseline49.9 ± 9.338.2 ± 4.10.26
    Hypoglycemia41.3 ± 10.531.1 ± 2.60.36
  • Data are means ± SE. P values derive from Student's t test.