Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the study population by metabolic status

Clinical characteristics*Referent 
(n = 2,553)MetS 
(n = 1,102)DM 
(n = 761)
Age, years51.5 (13.04)56.1 (11.8)59.1 (10.46)
Male sex, %38.8231.2230.88
High BP, %53.0492.4788.82
BP, mmHg
 Systolic123.2 (17.7)130.9 (17.09)130.8 (18.36)
 Diastolic78.6 (10.33)81.3 (10.13)77.2 (10.17)
Low HDL, %20.3671.6941.55
HDL, mg/dL55.5 (14.53)44.4 (11.43)50.7 (13.75)
Increased waist circumference, %47.292.5583.79
Waist circumference, cm95 (15.08)107.7 (13.99)108.3 (15.47)
Impaired fasting glucose, %5.1741.42100
Fasting blood glucose, mg/dL88.4 (7.53)96.7 (10.63)149.7 (60.16)
High triglycerides, %3.8839.5132.21
Triglycerides, mg/dL83.77 (39.85)141.08 (98.82)134.32 (112.66)
Current smokers, %12.6112.489.89
PAD, %4.665.459.27
ABI1.14 (0.15)1.16 (0.16)1.13 (0.18)
High CAC score, %14.0425.5140.64
CAC score61.2 (5.82)78.6 (6.51)132 (6.08)
LV hypertrophy, %4.138.8213.68
LV mass index, g/m2.732.9 (1.27)37 (1.26)38.7 (1.29)
Microalbuminuria, %6.512.5428.63
Low ejection fraction, %2.072.252.97
Subclinical disease, %18.9929.9444.65
Time to event, years6.1 (1.07)6.1 (1.27)5.9 (1.6)
  • Average follow-up is 6 years. Data are a percentage or mean (SD).

  • *Clinical characteristics are defined by the following criteria: high BP is defined as systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications; obesity is defined based on waist circumference: 102 cm (40 inches) in men, 88 cm (35 inches) in women; high triglycerides is defined as >150 mg/dL or currently taking a lipid-lowering medication; low HDL is defined as <40 mg/dL in men or <50 mg/dL in women; impaired fasting glucose is defined as a fasting glucose >100 mg/dL or medication use; PAD is defined as an ABI <0.9; high CAC score is defined as a raw CAC score >100; LV hypertrophy is defined as an LV mass index >51 g/m2.7; low ejection fraction is defined as an ejection fraction <50%; microalbuminuria is defined as a urine albumin–to–creatinine ratio >25 μg/mg in men and >35 μg/mg in women.

  • †The referent group is defined as those without DM or MetS.

  • The CAC score and LV mass index are geometric means ± SDs. Subclinical disease is defined as the presence of any one of the following: PAD, high CAC score, LV hypertrophy, low ejection fraction, or microalbuminuria.