Table 2

Odds of the components of the subclinical disease in the study population based on metabolic status

Components of subclinical disease*ReferentMetSDMP value
OR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP value
PAD10.9010.623–1.3030.581.5631.054–2.3170.02610.045
High CAC score11.7341.327–2.265<0.00014.3483.176–5.953<0.0001<0.0001
LV hypertrophy11.9381.337–2.8070.00053.0412.008–4.606<0.00010.112
Microalbuminuria§11.9471.429–2.652<0.00014.7943.43–6.701<0.0001<0.0001
Low ejection fraction11.1630.698–1.940.56211.3660.746–2.5040.31260.691
At least one component of subclinical disease11.5481.296–1.848<0.00012.8632.324–3.526<0.0001<0.0001
  • All models are adjusted for age, sex, smoking, LDL, education, and percent of fat.

  • *Components of subclinical diseases are based on the following criteria: PAD is defined as an ABI <0.9; high CAC score is defined as a raw CAC score >100; LV hypertrophy is defined as an LV mass index >51 g/m2.7; low ejection fraction is defined as an ejection fraction <50%; microalbuminuria is defined as a urine albumin–to–creatinine ratio >25 μg/mg in men and >35 μg/mg in women.

  • †Referent group is defined as those without DM or MetS.

  • ‡ORMetS vs. ORDM.

  • §There were 49 participants assigned to the subclinical group based only on the presence of microalbuminuria.