Table 3

Association between immune mediators and acute foot ulcer: multivariable regression models

Immune mediatorModel 1
Model 2
Model 3a
Model 3b
Model 4
βPβPβPβPβP
CRP (mg/l)1.59<0.00011.59<0.00011.66<0.00011.70<0.00011.74<0.0001
Fibrinogen (g/l)0.34<0.00010.33<0.00010.35<0.00010.32<0.00010.35<0.0001
IL-6 (pg/ml)1.58<0.00011.50<0.00011.48<0.00011.51<0.00011.47<0.0001
MIF (ng/ml)0.70<0.00010.69<0.00010.70<0.00010.76<0.00010.75<0.0001
IL-18 (pg/ml)0.130.170.140.160.150.150.200.0750.220.077
IL-8 (pg/ml)0.080.450.001.00−0.010.94−0.050.70−0.040.79
MIP-1α (pg/ml)0.170.0720.220.0230.230.0280.330.00270.350.0029
MCP-1 (pg/ml)0.060.490.030.740.030.730.100.310.060.53
IP-10 (pg/ml)0.61<0.00010.53<0.00010.57<0.00010.49<0.00010.51<0.0001
RANTES (ng/ml)−0.31<0.0001−0.31<0.0001−0.29<0.0001−0.28<0.0001−0.280.0004
  • Data are regression coefficients (β) and P values from linear regression analyses. Concentrations of immune markers were ln-transformed in case of nonnormality (i.e., all except fibrinogen and RANTES). Model 1: adjusted for diabetes type; model 2: model 1 + adjustment for age and sex; model 3a: model 2 + adjustment for BMI, A1C, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia; model 3b: model 2 + adjustment for PAD, neuropathy, and coronary heart disease; and model 4: full model (adjustment for all covariables from models 1, 2, 3a, and 3b).