Table 1

Baseline characteristics of survivors versus nonsurvivors

SurvivorsNonsurvivors
All-cause mortalityCardiovascular mortality
n34914153
Age (years)62.4 ± 6.867.1 ± 6.4*67.7 ± 6.7*
Sex (% men)43.653.9*50.9
Glucose tolerance status
    NGM66.551.843.4
    IGM14.015.617.0
    Type 2 diabetes19.532.6*39.6*
A1C (%)5.7 ± 1.16.2 ± 1.4*6.4 ± 1.6*
SBP (mmHg)136.2 ± 18.5142.8 ± 19.6*147.2 ± 21.6*
DBP (mmHg)82.0 ± 9.383.3 ± 11.284.4 ± 10.8
Use of blood pressure–lowering drugs (%)20.931.9*32.1*
Hypertension (%)46.465.2*69.8*
History of CVD (%)19.827.030.2
Ever smokers (%)59.671.6*73.6
WHR0.90 ± 0.080.94 ± 0.08*0.95 ± 0.08*
BMI (kg/cm2)26.8 ± 3.727.2 ± 3.927.4 ± 3.8
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)89.5 ± 16.195.0 ± 23.0*97.6 ± 30.6
eGFR (ml/min)69 ± 1166 ± 13*64 ± 15*
Cholesterol (mmol/l)6.61 ± 1.136.73 ± 1.316.86 ± 1.19
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.31 ± 0.371.26 ± 0.341.23 ± 0.31
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)4.51 ± 0.994.60 ± 1.134.77 ± 1.05
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (%)1.71.41.9
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.50 (1.10–2.10)1.70 (1.20–2.40)*1.80 (1.25–2.40)
EI difference (ms)162 (107–237)131 (83–213)*113 (79–183)*
RRmax (ms)254 ± 96217 ± 88*223 ± 91*
RRmax/min1.27 ± 0.161.19 ± 0.14*1.21 ± 0.13*
HF power (ms2)183 (85–438)151 (67–363)*145 (77–330)
LF power (ms2)239 (123–525)160 (68–390)*152 (63–307)*
LF/(LF + HF)0.56 ± 0.190.52 ± 0.210.50 ± 0.21*
BRS (ms/mmHg)9.01 ± 4.967.91 ± 4.20*7.84 ± 4.14
SDNN (ms)36 ± 1633 ± 19*32 ± 19
MeanNN (ms)966 ± 147927 ± 156*935 ± 157
SBP difference (mmHg)−6.42 ± 14.82−6.32 ± 15.17−6.45 ± 16.51
C-AD total score−0.08 ± 0.580.22 ± 0.61*0.22 ± 0.65*
Microalbuminuria (%)7.716.3*24.5*
  • Data are presented as frequencies (%), means ± SD, or medians (interquartile range). For a detailed explanation of autonomic function tests, see supplementary Table A1.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. survivors.

  • †These include diuretics, α-blockers, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and other blood pressure–lowering drugs but exclude ACE inhibitors (because subjects using these drugs were excluded from the analyses). eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; NGM, normal glucose metabolism.