Table 5

Risk of cardiovascular event by metabolic status and presence of subclinical disease

All CVD events (265/4,416)
HR95% CIP value
Model A (CVD risks associated with MetS and DM, not adjusting for subclinical disease)
 Referent groupReferent
 MetS*2.021.45–2.80<0.0001
 DM3.172.26–4.46<0.0001
Model B (CVD risks associated with MetS and DM, adjusting for presence/absence of subclinical disease)
 Referent groupReferent
 MetS1.781.27–2.51<0.0001
 DM3.792.52–5.69<0.0001
 Subclinical disease present3.162.26–4.42<0.0001
Model C (CVD risks associated with MetS and DM, by presence versus absence of subclinical disease)
 Referent group
  Subclinical disease absentReferent
  Subclinical disease present3.492.13–5.73<0.0001
 MetS
  Subclinical disease absent2.641.607–4.350.0002
  Subclinical disease present4.482.68–7.49<0.0001
 DM
  Subclinical disease absent4.362.56–7.45<0.0001
  Subclinical disease present6.954.15–11.64<0.0001
  • All models are adjusted for age, sex, smoking, LDL, education, and percent of fat. The referent groups are defined as those without DM or MetS. The interaction of subclinical disease and MetS and the interaction of subclinical disease and DM were significant (P = 0.0175 and P = 0.038, respectively).

  • *No DM;

  • †For model B, the referent group includes participants with neither MetS nor DM, but, it may include participants with and without subclinical disease.