Table 2

Stratified and meta-regression analysis to explore the effects of study characteristics

Number of cohortsPooled RRs (95% CI)*P value of meta-regression
Study design
    Historical cohort101.22 (1.10–1.36)0.55
    Prospective cohort41.10 (1.01–1.20)
Indicators of participant characteristics
    Country
        Asia81.09 (1.04–1.21)0.10
        Western61.27 (1.12–1.44)
Mean age (years)
    ≤5081.12 (1.04–1.19)0.14
    >5061.26 (1.11–1.44)
Sex
    Men only71.09 (1.02–1.16)0.09
    Women only41.28 (1.08–1.51)0.31
    Both men and women31.40 (0.98–2.00)
Mean SUA level (mg/dl)
    ≤5.561.18 (1.15–1.32)0.98
    >5.581.16 (1.05–1.28)
Indicators of study quality
    Study adjustment for
        alcohol intake
            No91.27 (1.13–1.43)0.02
            Yes51.07 (1.02–1.12)
Metabolic confounders
    Insufficient81.21 (1.09–1.34)0.46
    Sufficient61.11 (1.02–1.21)
Follow-up duration (years)
    ≤861.25 (1.03–1.51)0.37
    >881.13 (1.05–1.20)
Diabetes ascertainment
    Blood measurements only41.18 (1.02–1.37)0.81
    Report only31.24 (0.96–1.59)0.64
    Both71.14 (1.06–1.23)
  • *Pooled RRs of type 2 diabetes for each 1 mg/dl increase in SUA within the strata of each study characteristic are indicated.

  • †Represents the test for significance of the effect across strata.

  • ‡If the RRs were adjusted for more than three confounders (among BMI, fasting plasma glucose, hypertension [or systolic blood pressure], HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides), they were regarded as sufficient; otherwise, they were regarded as insufficient.