Table 1

Sample description according to glycemic group: AGES-Reykjavik

NormoglycemicIFGType 2 diabetes
n2,3271,599489
Age (years)76.4 ± 5.575.9 ± 5.476.0 ± 5.4
Education (low)23.322.719.0
Sex (female)65.052.547.2
Depression7.16.06.8
MMSE total score27 (26, 29)27 (26, 29)28 (26, 29)
DSST (total correct)29 (22, 36)29 (22, 37)28 (20, 36)
Ever smoker54.958.9*60.7*
Physical activity (no moderate activity)43.544.051.9
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 ± 4.127.7 ± 4.328.6 ± 4.5
Hypertension75.983.091.2
Myocardial infarction5.45.17.4
A1C (%)5.5 (5.3, 5.7)5.6 (5.4, 5.8)6.2 (5.9, 6.8)
Fasting glucose5.2 (5.0, 5.4)5.9 (5.7, 6.2)7.4 (6.6, 8.5)
Hypoglycemic medication use0.150.9
Insulin use6.8
Self-reported stroke6.35.27.2
Cerebral infarct on MRI28.029.543.7
Brain volume (% of total intracranial volume)
    Total brain volume72.25 ± 3.872.23 ± 3.971.24 ± 3.7
    Grey matter45.18 ± 1.845.23 ± 1.944.66 ± 1.9
    White matter25.74 ± 1.325.71 ± 1.3*25.12 ± 1.3
    WMLs1.32 ± 3.31.29 ± 3.21.46 ± 3.2*
  • Data are means ± SD, median (25th percentile, 75th percentile), or percent. n = 4,415. Glycemic groups are based on current American Diabetes Association criteria (15). Depression was classified as a score of ≥6 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (18).

  • *P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.001, for age-adjusted comparison with the normoglycemic group. DSST, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (24); MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination (23).