Table 1

Characteristics of study population and by DNT score quartile

All subjectsDNT
Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4P*
Quartile range[0–42%][43–65%][66–82%][66–82%]
n383104979884
Age (years)56 (47–64)61 (51–67)57 (49–66)56 (47–62)50 (41–56)<0.001
Female193 (50)63 (60)43 (44)49 (50)38 (45)0.07
Race
    White249 (65)32 (31)65 (67)77 (79)75 (89)<0.001
    Nonwhite134 (35)72 (69)32 (33)21 (21)9 (11)
Income (n = 375)
    <20,000 USD166 (44)80 (80)47 (49)23 (23)16 (20)<0.001
    ≥20,000 USD209 (56)20 (20)48 (51)75 (77)66 (80)
Education (n = 377)
    Less than high school or GED163 (43)74 (73)47 (49)29 (30)13 (15)<0.001
    High school or GED or more214 (57)27 (27)49 (51)67 (70)71 (85)
Private insurance (% yes)185 (48)32 (31)39 (40)58 (59)56 (67)<0.001
Literacy status, REALM
    Less than ninth grade120 (31)71 (68)30 (31)15 (15)4 (5)<0.001
    Ninth grade or higher263 (69)33 (32)67 (69)83 (85)80 (95)
Numeracy, WRAT-3
    Less than ninth grade266 (69)103 (99)84 (87)52 (53)27 (32)<0.001
    Ninth grade or higher117 (31)1 (1)13 (13)46 (47)57 (68)
Diabetes: type 2 (% yes)327 (85)100 (96)90 (93)86 (88)51 (61)<0.001
Years of diabetes9 (3.5–17)8 (3–15)9 (4–16)10 (4–19)9 (5–17)0.48
Insulin use (% yes)236 (62)65 (63)57 (59)51 (52)63 (75)0.25
BMI (kg/m2)32 (28–38)33 (28–39)33 (29–38)31 (28–37)32 (26–38)0.20
A1C (%)7.2 (6.5–8.3)7.6 (6.5–9.0)7.2 (6.3–8.3)7.2 (6.5–8.0)7.2 (6.4–8.2)0.24
  • Data are medians (interquartile range) or n (%) unless otherwise stated.

  • *Test for trend (nonparametric) comparing across DNT quartiles.