Table 1

Similarities of incretin-based therapies

Properties/actionIncretin mimeticsDPP-4 inhibitors
Glucose-dependent insulin secretionYesYes
Glucose-dependent glucagonostatic effectYesYes
Effect on fasting plasma glucose (reduction)By 1.4–3.4 mmol/lBy 1.0–1.4 mmol/l
Effect on postprandial glucoseYesYes (but weaker)
Effect on A1C (reduction)By 0.8–1.8%By 0.5–1.1%
Effect on (pro)insulin biosynthesisYesYes (weaker?)
Improved in vivo β-cell function (in humans)Yes*Yes*
Beneficial cardiovascular effectsProbableNot proven
  • *As determined while patients received treatment (lasting effects need to be proven after washing out treatment).