Table 1

Clinical characteristics of 477 type 1 diabetic patients at baseline

NormoalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuriaP
Subjects (men/women)239 (150/89)238 (149/89)
Age (years)32 ± 1141 ± 10<0.001
Age at onset (years)16 ± 911 ± 7<0.001
Duration (years)17 ± 1129 ± 8<0.001
Follow-up (years)6.2 (4.4–7.2)6.8 (5.7–7.4)0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.7 ± 3.325.8 ± 4.10.001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.86 ± 0.080.90 ± 0.09<0.001
A1C (%)8.5 ± 1.68.9 ± 1.50.004
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 983 ± 10<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128 ± 15144 ± 20<0.001
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)84 (75–92)132 (102–204)<0.001
Serum C-reactive protein (mg/l)1.9 (1.2–3.6)2.7 (1.6–5.4)<0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/l)4.8 ± 1.05.4 ± 1.1<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.07 (0.80–1.44)1.42 (1.03–2.09)<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.33 ± 0.371.17 ± 0.38<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.90 ± 0.853.44 ± 0.93<0.001
ApoAI (g/l)138 ± 20140 ± 24NS
ApoAII (g/l)35 ± 834 ± 7NS
ApoB (g/l)88 ± 20103 ± 23<0.001
AER (mg/24 h)10 (7–17)626 (225–1497)<0.001
eGDR (mg · kg−1 · min−1)7.4 (5.7–9.0)4.1 (3.1–5.0)<0.001
Adiponectin (mg/l)10.3 (7.2–13.7)15.0 (10.4–22.3)<0.001
Antihypertension medication (%)1092<0.001
Lipid-lowering medication (%)425<0.001
Current smoking (%)3232NS
  • Data are expressed as means ± SD or median (IQR).