Table 1

Subject characteristics

Placebo (n = 11)n-3 (n = 14)P
BaselineFollow-upBaselineFollow-up
Physical characteristics
Age (years)32.6 ± 2.533.2 ± 2.535.3 ± 2.935.8 ± 3.00.604
Height (cm)168.1 ± 2.3168.0 ± 2.0172.3 ± 2.2172.7 ± 2.30.174
Weight (kg)99.6 ± 4.5101.7 ± 4.4105.3 ± 4.2107.3 ± 5.10.724
BMI (kg/m2)35.2 ± 1.436.0 ± 1.435.5 ± 1.236.0 ± 1.30.412
FFM (kg)51.8 ± 2.652.5 ± 2.556.6 ± 2.756.4 ± 2.80.191
Body fat (%)45.1 ± 2.145.8 ± 2.143.9 ± 1.944.9 ± 1.60.791
Abdominal fat (cm2)46.5 (32.2–59.5)50.2 (36.8–62.1)46.7 (32.7–58.8)47.1 (34.0–57.6)0.271
Visceral fat (cm2)9.69 ± 1.188.55 ± 0.899.92 ± 1.0410.50 ± 1.150.048
Lipids
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)193 ± 7196 ± 7170 ± 11171 ± 90.810
 Triglyceride (mg/dL)120 ± 19153 ± 35175 ± 18141 ± 130.012
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)48 ± 346 ± 351 ± 350 ± 40.087
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)99 ± 895 ± 9110 ± 6113 ± 70.254
 Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)124 ± 9125 ± 11145 ± 8141 ± 80.414
 EPA (μmol/L)1.61 ± 0.372.34 ± 0.731.54 ± 0.4011.47 ± 4.300.076
 EPA (mg/dL)0.049 ± 0.0110.071 ± 0.0220.047 ± 0.0120.347 ± 0.1300.076
 DHA (μmol/L)1.47 ± 0.202.22 ± 0.611.62 ± 0.354.49 ± 0.820.068
 DHA (mg/dL)0.048 ± 0.0060.073 ± 0.0200.053 ± 0.0120.148 ± 0.0270.068
Glucose and hormones
 Glucose (mg/dL)89.9 ± 1.695.2 ± 4.992.4 ± 2.893.4 ± 3.10.321
 Insulin (μIU/mL)17.3 ± 2.318.8 ± 2.016.4 ± 0.917.1 ± 1.80.934
 HOMA-IR3.83 ± 0.504.52 ± 0.543.76 ± 0.283.94 ± 0.520.715
Inflammatory markers
 Leptin (ng/mL)41.7 ± 5.641.2 ± 5.635.2 ± 5.835.2 ± 4.90.878
 Adiponectin (μg/mL)6.37 ± 0.686.80 ± 0.885.47 ± 0.495.70 ± 0.530.672
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL)0.11 (0.06–0.26)0.21 (0.14–0.31)0.34 (0.09–0.46)0.32 (0.05–0.68)0.487
 Interleukin-6 (pg/mL)1.81 ± 0.371.87 ± 0.291.73 ± 0.201.67 ± 0.220.688
Energy expenditure
 RQ (fasting)0.87 ± 0.010.86 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.020.86 ± 0.020.659
 RQ (steady-state insulin)0.93 ± 0.020.95 ± 0.010.92 ± 0.010.92 ± 0.020.268
 REE (fasting)1,701 ± 831,770 ± 891,862 ± 661,910 ± 700.763
 REE (steady-state insulin)1,777 ± 951,760 ± 511,846 ± 511,898 ± 660.306
  • Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo (ethyl oleate) or n-3 (EPA+DHA) for 6 months. Measurements were made prior to randomization (baseline) and again after 6 months (follow-up). For normally distributed data, means ± SEM are given, and two-way (group and time) repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare outcomes across groups. Precise P values are given for the group-by-time interaction. For data that were not normally distributed (abdominal fat and C-reactive protein), data are given as median (interquartile range), and Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the Δ from baseline to follow-up between placebo and n-3 groups.