Table 3

Risk of smoking for coronary heart disease and stroke in the Nurses' Health Study

Coronary heart disease*Stroke
Never smokers1.001.00
Past smokers1.21 (0.97–1.51)0.69 (0.48–1.00)
Current smokers
    1–14 cigarettes/day1.66 (1.10–2.52)1.04 (0.50–2.17)
    ≥15 cigarettes/day2.68 (2.07–3.48)1.84 (1.21–2.81)
P for trend<0.0010.004
  • *Coronary heart disease includes fatal CHD and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Data are relative risks vs. never smokers, adjusted for age, period, alcohol consumption, duration of diabetes, postmenopausal hormone use, diabetes medication use, BMI, family history of myocardial infarction, physical activity, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Adapted from Al-Delaimy et al. (21).