Table 3—

Criteria for testing for pre-diabetes and diabetes in asymptomatic adult individuals

1.Testing should be considered in all adults who are overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2*) and have additional risk factors:
  • physical inactivity

  • first-degree relative with diabetes

  • members of a high-risk ethnic population (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander)

  • women who delivered a baby weighing >9 lb or were diagnosed with GDM

  • hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg or on therapy for hypertension)

  • HDL cholesterol level <35 mg/dl (0.90 mmol/l) and/or a triglyceride level >250 mg/dl (2.82 mmol/l)

  • women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

  • IGT or IFG on previous testing

  • other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., severe obesity, acanthosis nigricans)

  • history of CVD

2.In the absence of the above criteria, testing for pre-diabetes and diabetes should begin at age 45 years
3.If results are normal, testing should be repeated at least at 3-year intervals, with consideration of more frequent testing depending on initial results and risk status.
  • *

    * At-risk BMI may be lower in some ethnic groups.