Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of African American youth with diabetes, according to current age: the SEARCH study, cases from 2001 (prevalent) and 2002–2005 (incident)

Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
0–9 years10–14 years≥15 yearsP*10–14 years≥15 yearsP*
n (%)§161 (37)162 (37)113 (26)0.004581 (38)131 (62)0.0006
Diabetes diagnosis
    Age at diagnosis (years) (means ± SD)4.7 ± 2.49.1 ± 3.112.2 ± 4.4<0.000111.7 ± 115.1 ± 1.9<0.0001
    Symptoms present (% yes)93.188.186.40.155668.469.30.8876
    Diagnosis during routine check-up (% yes)9.95.715.50.0341.334.40.3178
    DKA present at diagnosis (% yes)30.825.916.70.240110.913.10.7081
Diabetes duration (months) (means ± SD)19.5 ± 19.435.6 ± 36.760.9 ± 56.7<0.000113.5 ± 8.831.6 ± 24.8<0.0001
    Diabetes duration categories (%)<0.0001<0.0001
        <6 months20.511.79.718.59.2
        6–12 months29.219.810.629.613.7
        >12 months50.368.579.751.977.1
Family history of diabetes (% yes)57.571.376.10.002395.090.60.2493
Current medication
    Insulin (% yes)98.896.886.50.00041827.50.1087
    Metformin (% yes)0.601.851.338.3
    Both insulin and metformin (% yes)03.29.925.622.5
Recent emergency room or hospitalization**
    DKA (% yes)8.710.19.70.91076.26.20.9955
    Hypoglycemia (% yes)6.83.85.30.47521.200.2059
Current glycemic control
    A1C <8.0%39.732.829.60.000174.259.60.0854
    8 ≤ A1C < 9.5%39.728.220.412.112.8
    A1C ≥9.5%20.638.95013.627.5
Current glycemic control (adjusted for duration)
    A1C <8.0%27.126.830.80.797569.362.30.3972
    8 ≤ A1C < 9.5%4328.818.20.001613.6120.7840
    A1C ≥9.5%24.540.2460.007016.125.30.2079
GAD65 positive (% yes)52.364.351.60.078317.218.10.8809
GAD65 positive (adjusted for duration) (% yes)47.463.355.50.045616.218.40.7325
Fasting C-peptide (ng/ml) (adjusted for duration) (means ± SE)0.4 ± 0.070.6 ± 0.060.8 ± 0.070.00233.1 ± 0.22.8 ± 0.10.3159
Acanthosis (% yes)11.714.625.30.016369.479.80.1113
Blood pressure
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) (means ± SD)92.7 ± 13.2105 ± 11.5112.4 ± 11.4<0.0001116 ± 12.9118.6 ± 12.60.1714
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) (means ± SD)58.3 ± 11.465.5 ± 10.873.1 ± 10.7<0.000171.7 ± 10.574.6 ± 10.10.0633
    High blood pressure (% yes)††6.17.89.80.577924.722.50.7378
    Ever told by provider they had high blood pressure (% yes)2.55.112.40.002622.223.30.8622
Blood pressure (adjusted for duration)
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) (means ± SE)93 ± 1.1105.2 ± 1112.1 ± 1.2<0.0001115.5 ± 1.6118.8 ± 1.20.1137
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) (means ± SE)59.3 ± 1.065.8 ± 0.972.4 ± 1.1<0.000172.4 ± 1.374.3 ± 1.00.2534
    High blood pressure (% yes)††6.788.90.846523.422.90.9375
    Ever told by provider they had high blood pressure (% yes)3.15.19.30.14562223.40.8255
High albumin-to-creatinine ratio (% yes)‡‡6.41111.50.327215.213.40.7528
High albumin-to-creatinine ratio (adjusted for duration)7.511.28.90.618716.912.50.4867
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD)103.3 ± 26.497.4 ± 28.7112.4 ± 35.80.0024103.3 ± 34.3112.8 ± 31.70.0803
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (adjusted for duration) (means ± SE)106.5 ± 3.298.2 ± 2.7110.1 ± 3.30.0149106.7 ± 4.5111.4 ± 3.30.4147
LDL cholesterol
    Percent with LDL cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl§§5739.265.50.000558.662.40.6402
    Percent with LDL cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl (adjusted for duration)61.440.263.10.001265.260.80.6029
    Percent with LDL cholesterol ≥70 mg/dl§§90.087.591.70.620477.695.10.0008
    Percent with LDL cholesterol ≥70 mg/dl (adjusted for duration)91.18891.20.668785.895.60.0259
Triglycerides (mg/dl) (geometric means ± SD)50.1 ± 1.557.5 ± 1.573.9 ± 1.8<0.000185.3 ± 1.7101.5 ± 1.90.0732
Triglycerides (mg/dl) (adjusted for duration) (geometric means ± SE)52.5 ± 1.158.3 ± 1.071.4 ± 1.10.000381.4 ± 1.1103.4 ± 1.10.0227
Triglycerides
    Percent with high triglycerides‖‖36.721.4<0.000124.140.60.0357
    Percent with high triglycerides (adjusted for duration)3.56.818.60.005822.141.60.0199
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD)61 ± 1457.9 ± 1254.2 ± 13.20.000844.7 ± 10.245.2 ± 11.40.7693
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (adjusted for duration) (means ± SE)61.7 ± 1.358.1 ± 1.153.7 ± 1.40.000246.2 ± 1.444.6 ± 1.10.3615
HDL cholesterol
    Percent with low HDL cholesterol¶¶5.86.113.50.066536.435.90.9455
    Percent with low HDL cholesterol (adjusted for duration)5.76.113.70.093827.937.20.2342
Apolipoprotein B (geometric means ± SD)67.2 ± 1.370.8 ± 1.382.7 ± 1.50.000378.5 ± 1.492.2 ± 1.30.0077
Apolipoprtein B (adjusted for duration) (geometric means ± SE)69.7 ± 171.4 ± 180.7 ± 10.020278.9 ± 1.191.9 ± 10.0210
Apolipoprotein B
    Percent with apolipoprotein B ≥90 mg/dl§§11.516.136.10.000834.351.30.0937
    Percent with apolipoprotein B ≥90 mg/dl (adjusted for duration)13.716.432.50.027333.651.70.1011
    Percent with apolipoprotein B ≥80 mg/dl§§21.328.748.60.002045.769.20.0173
    Percent with apolipoprotein B ≥80 mg/dl (adjusted for duration)25.329.544.90.064251.467.20.1417
Current lipid-lowering medication (% yes)00.60.90.520803.30.1033
    Current lipid-lowering medication (adjusted for duration)00.10.010.5430030.9999
  • *

    * P value for categorical variables using χ2 test for the association between variable levels and age-groups.

  • P value for continuous variables using ANOVA for the overall effect of age-group.

  • P value for adjusted variables using logistic regression (categorical variables) or linear regression (continuous variables) for the overall effect of age-group.

  • §

    § For non–laboratory-based variables, numbers in cells may vary slightly due to occasional missing data. For laboratory-based variables that required fasting (C-peptide, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol), ∼30% of type 1 participants and 25% of type 2 participants had missing values. For the remaining laboratory-based variables, ∼20% of participants had missing values. Percents reflect total percent of type 1 diabetes and total percent of type 2 diabetes.

  • Reported for incident cases only; defined as blood bicarbonate <15 mmol/l or pH <7.25 (venous) or <7.30 (arterial or capillary) or DKA ICD-9 code (250.1) documented in the medical records or DKA diagnosis mentioned in the medical records with or without biochemical confirmation or ICD-9 code.

  • Family history includes parents, grandparents, and biological siblings.

  • **

    ** Emergency room or hospitalization in the last 6 months.

  • ††

    †† High blood pressure defined as measured blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) ≥ age-, sex-, and height-specific 95th percentile.

  • ‡‡

    ‡‡ Albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 μg/mg.

  • §§

    §§ American Diabetes Association/American College of Cardiology consensus statement on lipoprotein management (ref. 20).

  • ‖‖

    ‖‖ ≥110 mg/dl.

  • ¶¶

    ¶¶ ≤40 mg/dl.