Table 2—

Clinical characteristics and laboratory results for 678 Hispanic youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: the SEARCH study, 2001 prevalent and 2002–2005 incident cohorts with a study visit

Type 1 diabetes (n = 551)
Type 2 diabetes (n = 127)
Aged 0–9 years*Aged 10–14 yearsAged ≥15 yearsPAged 10–14 yearsAged ≥15 yearsP
n1792101624087
Diagnosis
    Age at diabetes diagnosis (years) (means ± SD)4.5 ± 2.58.7 ± 3.211.2 ± 4.2NA11.6 ± 1.514.6 ± 2.1NA
    Duration of diabetes at visit (months) (means ± SD)22.0 ± 22.941.4 ± 38.073.2 ± 50.8<0.000113.8 ± 10.726.8 ± 24.00.001
    Duration of diabetes at visit (months) [n (%)]<0.00010.014
        <637 (20.8)21 (10.0)7 (4.3)8 (20.0)9 (10.3)
        6–1247 (26.4)35 (16.7)13 (8.1)12 (30.0)19 (21.8)
        >1294 (52.8)154 (73.3)141 (97.6)20 (50.0)59 (67.8)
    Learned they had diabetes through the following [n (%)]NANA
        Symptoms159 (90.9)189 (92.6)141 (88.1)20 (51.3)39 (47.6)
        Physical/check up12 (7.4)17 (9.2)21 (14.1)12 (31.6)29 (35.4)
        Screening4 (2.5)5 (2.7)3 (2.0)2 (5.3)5 (6.3)
    DKA at diagnosis, incident cases [n (% yes)]30 (25.6)22 (23.7)8 (21.6)0.873 (9.4)3 (6.4)0.62
    Any family history of diabetes [n (% yes)]§92 (52.3)129 (62.0)113 (70.2)0.00335 (89.7)71 (82.6)0.30
Clinical characteristics
    BMI (means ± SD)17.6 ± 2.721.7 ± 3.925.5 ± 5.1<0.000132.0 ± 8.133.3 ± 7.40.42
    BMI z score (means ± SD)0.7 ± 1.00.8 ± 0.90.8 ± 1.10.292 ± 0.91.8 ± 0.80.28
    Acanthosis nigricans [n (% present)]1 (0.7)20 (10.4)16 (10.7)0.000924 (66.7)46 (56.1)0.28
    High blood pressure at visit [n (%)]15 (10.8)12 (6.2)6 (4.0)0.077 (18.9)18 (21.7)0.73
    High blood pressure adjusted for duration (%)11.66.33.60.0720.420.60.98
    Diabetes medications [n (%)]<0.00010.038
        Currently on insulin only178 (100.0)207 (99.0)142 (88.8)13 (37.1)12 (16.0)
        Currently on insulin and metformin02 (1.0)12 (7.5)4 (11.4)9 (12.0)
        Currently on metformin only006 (3.8)17 (48.6)42 (56.0)
        No diabetes medication0001 (2.9)12 (16.0)
Laboratory measurements
    (%) (means ± SD)8.0 (1.2)8.6 (1.9)8.9 (2.0)0.00027.1 (2.2)8.5 (2.6)0.009
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE)8.2 (0.2)8.6 (0.1)8.7 (0.2)0.0427.3 (0.4)8.4 (0.3)0.043
    Glycemic control [n (%)]0.00020.023
        Good (A1C < 8.0%)64 (51.6)75 (42.1)48 (34.8)26 (74.3)37 (46.8)
        Marginal (8.0 ≤ A1C < 9.5%)45 (36.3)48 (27.0)40 (29.0)4 (11.4)15 (19.0)
        Poor (A1C ≥ 9.5%)15 (12.1)55 (30.9)50 (36.2)5 (14.3)27 (34.2)
    GAD65 positive [n (% yes)]68 (58.1)102 (59.3)80 (59.3)0.985 (16.1)14 (19.2)0.71
        Adjusted for duration (%)52.758.166.30.1518.217.50.93
    Fasting C-peptide (means ± SD)0.4 (0.3)0.6 (0.7)0.6 (0.9)0.064.4 (2.4)3.9 (2.6)0.35
    Mean fasting C-peptide adjusted for duration (means ± SE)0.3 (0.1)0.6 (0.1)0.8 (0.1)<0.00014.2 (0.5)4 (0.3)0.69
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD)96.6 ± 22.596.2 ± 26.899.7 ± 26.10.51104.4 ± 28.8108.3 ± 3.50.59
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE)98.9 ± 2.697.1 ± 2.096.9 ± 2.50.83105.8 ± 6.0107.7 ± 4.10.80
    High LDL cholesterol (≥100 mg/dl) [n (% yes)]42 (41.2)58 (38.2)58 (51.8)0.07818 (56.3)38 (56.7)0.97
        Adjusted for duration (% yes)43.539.048.80.3357.456.20.91
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) (geometric means ± SD)50.1 ± 1.465.4 ± 1.691.4 ± 1.9<0.0001127.7 ± 1.7159.9 ± 2.00.10
        Adjusted for duration (geometric mean ± SE)51.5 ± 1.166 ± 1.088.9 ± 1.1<0.0001128.1 ± 1.1159.7 ± 1.10.13
    High triglycerides (≥110 mg/dl) [n (% yes)]3 (2.9)21 (13.8)38 (33.9)<0.000119 (59.4)48 (71.6)0.22
        Adjusted for duration (% yes)3.214.130.9<0.000160.871.20.32
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) (means ± SD)55.3 ± 11.754 ± 11.750.1 ± 14.10.00241.6 ± 8.640.5 ± 10.40.61
        Adjusted for duration (means ± SE)56.1 ± 1.254.2 ± 0.949.1 ± 1.10.000142.4 ± 1.740.2 ± 1.10.29
    Low HDL cholesterol (≤40 mg/dl) [n (% yes)]9 (7.4)24 (13.5)30 (21.7)0.00417 (50.0)43 (55.1)0.62
        Adjusted for duration (% yes)6.312.724.70.000647.556.20.41
    Apolipoprotein B [median (interquartile range)]70.0 (15.0)70.0 (29.0)80.0 (40.0)0.00884.0 (30)97.5 (41.0)0.45
        Adjusted for duration [median (interquartile range)]69.2 (4.4)70.5 (5.3)77.8 (7.3)0.2088.5 (1.6)92.9 (4.7)0.66
    High apolipoprotein B (≥90 mg/dl) [n (%)]11 (14.5)27 (19.7)44 (35.8)<0.000110 (47.6)38 (61.3)0.27
        Adjusted for duration (% yes)16.120.233.10.02153.260.30.59
  • *

    * Age at time of in-person visit.

  • P value for categorical variables using χ2 test for the association between variable levels and age-groups. P value for continuous variables using ANOVA for the overall effect of age-group. P value for adjusted variables using logistic regression (categorical variables) or linear regression (continuous variables) for the overall effect of age-group. When results were missing, descriptive information and P values are based on participants with complete data.

  • More than one response category allowed.

  • §

    § Family history includes parents, grandparents, and biological siblings with any form of diabetes.

  • High blood pressure defined as measured blood pressure (systolic or diastolic) ≥ age-, sex-, and height-specific 95th percentile.

  • Glycemic control categories based on American Diabetes Association recommendations.