Table 3—

Clinical characteristics of SEARCH study youth by diabetes type and by Asian, Pacific Islander, and mixed Asian–Pacific Islander ethnicity

Type 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
AsianPacific IslanderAsian–Pacific IslanderOverall P value*AsianPacific IslanderAsian–Pacific IslanderOverall P value*
n105254745914
Weight categories
    Overweight23 (24.5)7 (29.2)9 (25.0)<0.00016 (19.4)2 (18.2)0.6597
    Obese9 (9.6)12 (50.0)4 (11.1)22 (71)8 (100)8 (72.7)
BMI (means ± SD)19.7 ± 3.925.9 ± 620.7 ± 3.3<0.000133.7 ± 12.442.4 ± 19.335.2 ± 10.30.2599
BMI z score (means ± SD)0.4 ± 1.11.5 ± 0.70.7 ± 0.8<0.00011.9 ± 0.82.3 ± 0.51.9 ± 0.70.4299
Waist measures
    Waist circumference (cm) (means ± SD)68.5 ± 13.385.3 ± 1772.9 ± 12.3<0.0001103 ± 17.4110.5 ± 13.9104 ± 17.80.5398
    High waist circumference [n (%)]§10 (11.4)12 (54.5)4 (11.1)<0.000125 (80.6)7 (87.5)8 (72.7)0.7215
Diabetes duration (months) (means ± SD)39.2 ± 41.652.9 ± 48.641.9 ± 44.70.366819.6 ± 16.720.8 ± 20.840.8 ± 36.70.0114
Family history of diabetes [n (% yes)]27 (27.6)7 (30.4)6 (15.4)0.269124 (64.9)4 (57.1)8 (72.7)0.7879
GAD65 [n (% positive)]37 (49.3)10 (45.5)15 (55.6)0.76784 (15.4)2 (25)1 (11.1)0.7269
Fasting C-peptide (means ± SE)0.5 ± 0.080.9 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.10.04793.3 ± 0.44.4 ± 0.73.2 ± 0.70.3479
Stimulated C-peptide (means ± SE)6.3 ± 1.39.1 ± 2.52.6 ± 1.80.148017.2 ± 2.916.3 ± 6.213.8 ± 6.50.8955
DKA at onset [n (%)]**12 (27.9)3 (33.3)6 (26.1)0.91902 (6.3)0.6537
Current therapy [n (%)]
    Insulin103 (99)21 (84)47 (100)0.00182 (5.7)1 (14.3)4 (50)0.0493
    Metformin1 (1)1 (4)25 (71.4)3 (42.9)3 (37.5)
    Both2 (8)3 (8.6)1 (14.3)
    None1 (4)5 (14.3)2 (28.6)1 (12.5)
A1C (means ± SE)8.3 ± 0.28.9 ± 0.48.7 ± 0.30.27578.1 ± 0.49.4 ± 0.88 ± 0.80.3192
A1C category [n (%)] (%)0.43600.3855
    <8.035 (45.4)6 (27.3)11 (39.3)17 (65.4)3 (37.5)4 (44.4)
    8.0–9.526 (33.8)8 (36.4)8 (28.6)2 (7.7)01 (11.1)
    >9.516 (20.8)8 (36.4)9 (32.1)7 (26.9)5 (62.5)4 (44.4)
Hypertension [n (% yes)]15 (16.1)1 (4.2)2 (5.6)0.11208 (27.6)1 (12.5)4 (36.4)0.5104
Total cholesterol (means ± SE)174.3 ± 3.8174.7 ± 7160.5 ± 6.30.1561193.4 ± 8.7207.1 ± 16.2194.5 ± 15.60.7519
LDL cholesterol (means ± SE)100.5 ± 3.299.5 ± 5.590.1 ± 4.80.1890106.5 ± 7.2104.1 ± 13.2109.6 ± 12.70.9552
HDL cholesterol (means ± SE)56.7 ± 1.447.7 ± 2.556.5 ± 2.30.007244.5 ± 236.8 ± 3.844 ± 3.60.1959
Triglycerides (geometric means ± SE)68.9 ± 1.184 ± 1.161.2 ± 1.10.1618136 ± 1.2241.4 ± 1.4199 ± 1.30.2256
Apolipoprotein B (geometric means ± SE)73.6 ± 1.082.9 ± 1.169.7 ± 1.10.110890.4 ± 1.1124.5 ± 1.2105.8 ± 1.20.2626
  • *

    * P value for categorical variables using χ2 test for the association between variable levels and Asian/Pacific Islander/Asian–Pacific Islander groups or continuous variables using ANOVA for the overall effect of Asian/Pacific Islander/Asian–Pacific Islander groups. P value for adjusted variables using logistic regression (categorical variables) or linear regression (continuous variables) for the overall effect of Asian/Pacific Islander/Asian–Pacific Islander groups.

  • Overweight: BMI 85th to 95th percentile for age and sex; obese: BMI ≥95th percentile for age and sex.

  • Overweight and obese categories are combined for type 2 diabetes statistical analyses.

  • §

    § ≥90th percentile for age and sex.

  • Yes, if positive for mother, father, or sibling.

  • Adjusted for age and duration.

  • **

    ** For incident cases only.

  • ††Systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥95th percentile for age, sex, and height.