Table 1

Atorvastatin and fenofibrate effects on lipid/lipoprotein profile, glucose metabolism, low-grade inflammation, hemostasis, and cytokine secretion by stimulated monocytes in MS patients coexisting with pre-diabetes or NGT

Control subjectsMS without pre-diabetesMS with pre-diabetes
PlaceboAtorvastatinFenofibratePlaceboAtorvastatinFenofibrate
n48181919566161
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
    Baseline159.0 ± 4.3240.0 ± 5.5*234.5 ± 5.0*231.2 ± 5.8*234.4 ± 3.8*229.1 ± 5.1*233.5 ± 6.0*
    After 30 days156.2 ± 4.5235.1 ± 4.5*145.1 ± 4.3200.3 ± 4.9*235.8 ± 4.1*149.2 ± 4.6207.2 ± 5.2*
    After 90 days155.1 ± 3.9238.2 ± 4.2*141.1 ± 4.0195.2 ± 6.2*230.1 ± 4.4*143.3 ± 4.2199.7 ± 7.0*
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
    Baseline104.8 ± 3.0146.2 ± 3.4*145.0 ± 3.1*142.5 ± 5.6*138.4 ± 3.6*142.1 ± 2.9*137.9 ± 4.5
    After 30 days103.9 ± 3.2144.1 ± 4.5*104.2 ± 3.4123.1 ± 4.2*142.1 ± 4.0*107.7 ± 4.1121.2 ± 4.1*
    After 90 days103.1 ± 2.9145.6 ± 2.2*101.1 ± 3.2119.1 ± 4.1*140.4 ± 3.8*103.2 ± 3.6116.2 ± 3.9*
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)
    Baseline53.0 ± 0.834.1 ± 0.7*34.4 ± 0.9*33.0 ± 1.4*33.2 ± 0.9*34.7 ± 0.6*33.4 ± 1.1*
    After 30 days53.4 ± 0.935.2 ± 0.8*37.2 ± 0.9*37.5 ± 1.3*33.1 ± 0.8*38.8 ± 1.0*37.9 ± 1.2*
    After 90 days53.9 ± 1.234.6 ± 1.1*38.5 ± 0.5*39.0 ± 1.1*34.4 ± 0.8*39.7 ± 0.6*39.2 ± 1.0*
Triglycerides (mg/dl)
    Baseline112.7 ± 3.5264.2 ± 8.0*256.9 ± 11.1*265.4 ± 9.8*249.2 ± 9.8*253.9 ± 7.5*260.3 ± 11.2*
    After 30 days108.4 ± 3.2267.1 ± 7.3*225.1 ± 8.9*180.5 ± 10.1*242.2 ± 7.5*220.5 ± 8.6*191.0 ± 10.4*
    After 90 days106.0 ± 4.2270.9 ± 7.4*220.2 ± 6.4*175.7 ± 8.6*245.1 ± 7.0*221.7 ± 8.2*177.3 ± 9.9*
Free fatty acids (μmol/l)
    Baseline223.2 ± 11.5410.3 ± 34.1*398.3 ± 35.2*396.5 ± 32.2*454.1 ± 39.1*466.9 ± 39.2*452.1 ± 34.2*
    After 30 days216.4 ± 12.3425.2 ± 30.2*336.8 ± 30.4*335.2 ± 26.5*452.3 ± 30.5*410.2 ± 31.1*379.3 ± 46.5*
    After 90 days218.4 ± 14.2431.1 ± 34.0*334.2 ± 32.1*325.1 ± 29.0*445.4 ± 40.0*384.4 ± 22.6*354.4 ± 43.5*
Oxidized LDLs (U/l)
    Baseline31.3 ± 3.270.2 ± 8.1*67.9 ± 6.2*65.2 ± 7.9*73.2 ± 5.5*76.9 ± 7.4*78.2 ± 7.5*
    After 30 days30.2 ± 3.172.3 ± 6.9*36.2 ± 5.055.2 ± 6.4*77.8 ± 6.2*30.4 ± 5.356.3 ± 6.9*
    After 90 days32.0 ± 3.774.0 ± 6.8*32.2 ± 7.847.2 ± 5.2*71.1 ± 6.1*33.1 ± 6.049.2 ± 5.4*
Apoprotein A-I (mg/dl)
    Baseline178.5 ± 14.6128.3 ± 11.9*129.1 ± 9.2*132.5 ± 10.3*131.1 ± 12.0*128.0 ± 10.1*128.6 ± 10.5*
    After 30 days176.1 ± 13.6130.1 ± 10.9*132.2 ± 10.2*145.5 ± 9.5*134.4 ± 11.2*129.1 ± 11.3*146.3 ± 10.1*
    After 90 days175.0 ± 14.0126.7 ± 10.6*140.2 ± 9.8*152.1 ± 8.6*131.5 ± 13.6*138.1 ± 12.4*155.2 ± 9.5*
Apoprotein B (mg/dl)
    Baseline101.5 ± 9.6153.2 ± 14.1*156.4 ± 11.0*152.2 ± 12.2*148.4 ± 13.5*151.9 ± 10.7*155.9 ± 12.9*
    After 30 days103.5 ± 10.0155.4 ± 12.1*114.1 ± 9.8*129.0 ± 10.6*144.7 ± 12.7*115.3 ± 8.8*133.0 ± 14.5*
    After 90 days105.0 ± 12.1156.4 ± 13.2*108.3 ± 9.2122.5 ± 6.2*143.2 ± 11.0*101.1 ± 8.6124.2 ± 8.3*
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)
    Baseline86.1 ± 2.391.3 ± 2.489.9 ± 1.889.2 ± 2.2104.3 ± 3.8*§108.1 ± 2.0*§109.2 ± 1.9*§
    After 30 days87.2 ± 2.189.4 ± 2.586.5 ± 2.887.2 ± 2.1100.1 ± 4.4*106.2 ± 2.1*104.1 ± 2.2*
    After 90 days85.2 ± 1.889.0 ± 2.988.7 ± 2.287.0 ± 2.0102.3 ± 4.2*107.7 ± 2.2*103.1 ± 1.8*
2-h postglucose load plasma glucose levels (mg/dl)
    Baseline118.2 ± 3.6123.1 ± 3.8119.3 ± 4.1125.4 ± 5.2149.9 ± 4.2*§152.8 ± 5.5*§156.1 ± 6.4*§
    After 30 days116.1 ± 3.2119.2 ± 2.9120.3 ± 2.4121.1 ± 6.5146.2 ± 4.1*149.4 ± 4.4*144.2 ± 4.2*
    After 90 days115.8 ± 3.0117.0 ± 3.5122.3 ± 2.5118.2 ± 6.0144.1 ± 3.6*153.0 ± 4.1*143.8 ± 3.9*
HOMA
    Baseline1.3 ± 0.13.4 ± 0.3*3.5 ± 0.2*3.7 ± 0.2*4.7 ± 0.3*§4.9 ± 0.2*§4.9 ± 0.3*§
    After 30 days1.2 ± 0.13.5 ± 0.2*3.4 ± 0.3*2.5 ± 0.2*4.5 ± 0.3*5.1 ± 0.3*3.8 ± 0.3*
    After 90 days1.3 ± 0.13.6 ± 0.3*3.8 ± 0.2*2.2 ± 0.2*4.5 ± 0.2*5.0 ± 0.3*2.9 ± 0.2*
A1C (%)
    Baseline4.8 ± 0.24.9 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.25.0 ± 0.15.2 ± 0.35.4 ± 0.25.3 ± 0.3
    After 30 days4.9 ± 0.25.0 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.24.9 ± 0.35.0 ± 0.25.4 ± 0.25.0 ± 0.2
    After 90 days4.7 ± 0.14.8 ± 0.25.0 ± 0.14.7 ± 0.25.0 ± 0.25.3 ± 0.14.6 ± 0.2
hs-CRP (mg/l)
    Baseline0.9 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.3*1.5 ± 0.1*1.7 ± 0.2*2.7 ± 0.4*§2.5 ± 0.3*§2.4 ± 0.2*§
    After 30 days0.8 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.2*1.1 ± 0.1*1.2 ± 0.2*2.7 ± 0.3*1.8 ± 0.3*1.7 ± 0.2*
    After 90 days1.0 ± 0.31.5 ± 0.1*0.8 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.12.4 ± 0.4*1.4 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.1
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)
    Baseline3.0 ± 0.14.2 ± 0.2*4.0 ± 0.2*4.2 ± 0.1*4.4 ± 0.2*4.5 ± 0.3*4.6 ± 0.3
    After 30 days2.9 ± 0.14.1 ± 0.2*4.2 ± 0.3*3.5 ± 0.2*4.4 ± 0.1*4.4 ± 0.2*3.6 ± 0.2*
    After 90 days3.1 ± 0.24.0 ± 0.2*3.9 ± 0.2*3.2 ± 0.24.2 ± 0.2*4.4 ± 0.3*3.4 ± 0.2
Factor VII activity (%)
    Baseline98.2 ± 3.2126.0 ± 4.4*124.8 ± 4.6*123.2 ± 5.0*155.1 ± 4.5*§155.3 ± 3.9*§153.1 ± 4.9§
    After 30 days96.5 ± 4.1123.8 ± 5.0*100.2 ± 5.2101.1 ± 6.2154.1 ± 5.1*115.6 ± 4.2112.9 ± 5.2*
    After 90 days95.8 ± 4.2125.0 ± 5.1*96.2 ± 4.998.2 ± 6.1157.4 ± 4.8*93.3 ± 5.099.9 ± 4.8
PAI-1 (ng/ml)
    Baseline42.2 ± 4.189.2 ± 3.5*92.1 ± 4.0*83.8 ± 5.1*118.4 ± 7.9*§120.1 ± 6.0*§118.6 ± 5.5*§
    After 30 days43.4 ± 3.686.4 ± 3.1*67.4 ± 4.4*62.2 ± 6.4*116.5 ± 7.2*75.2 ± 4.8*86.4 ± 6.0*
    After 90 days44.5 ± 4.085.0 ± 3.7*40.3 ± 3.557.8 ± 4.3*121.1 ± 3.2*52.1 ± 3.469.6 ± 5.9*
TNF-α release (pg/ml)
    Baseline852.3 ± 102.31,395.2 ± 164.2*1,520.8 ± 153.3*1,470.2 ± 109.3*2,280.1 ± 156.7*§2,362.9 ± 172.3*§2,345.7 ± 164.1*§
    After 30 days830.1 ± 78.51,370.1 ± 132.9*1,112.1 ± 135.0*1,098.3 ± 115.2*2,210.5 ± 149.2*1,521.1 ± 134.0*1,798.3 ± 115.2*
    After 90 days804.0 ± 81.31,298.8 ± 111.2*798.2 ± 122.2781.1 ± 99.12,142.4 ± 160.1*1,155.1 ± 133.5*1,168.8 ± 87.8*
IL-1β release (pg/ml)
    Baseline71.4 ± 9.0123.1 ± 10.9*118.9 ± 7.5*119.8 ± 12.5*198.3 ± 14.3*§201.0 ± 11.2*§208.2 ± 14.1*§
    After 30 days69.0 ± 8.3120.1 ± 9.8*88.2 ± 7.1*89.1 ± 10.1*193.1 ± 12.9*154.2 ± 8.7*154.7 ± 12.2*
    After 90 days70.8 ± 7.5119.6 ± 8.5*62.9 ± 6.464.2 ± 11.1199.1 ± 13.8*106.1 ± 9.1*112.2 ± 10.5*
IL-6 release (ng/ml)
    Baseline5.9 ± 0.48.2 ± 0.9*8.2 ± 0.8*8.0 ± 0.7*12.4 ± 0.3*§13.1 ± 0.9*§12.9 ± 0.5*§
    After 30 days6.2 ± 0.58.1 ± 0.7*6.2 ± 0.86.4 ± 0.512.5 ± 0.5*9.6 ± 0.9*8.9 ± 0.4*
    After 90 days6.0 ± 0.48.1 ± 0.5*5.7 ± 0.65.8 ± 0.212.8 ± 0.3*7.7 ± 0.7*7.5 ± 0.6*
MCP-1 release (ng/ml)
    Baseline10.4 ± 0.816.2 ± 2.0*16.4 ± 1.4*16.6 ± 1.6*20.9 ± 1.4*21.2 ± 1.2*§20.7 ± 1.1*§
    After 30 days10.9 ± 0.716.5 ± 2.2*13.1 ± 1.6*13.3 ± 1.4*19.3 ± 2.0*16.2 ± 1.3*15.5 ± 1.2*
    After 90 days11.1 ± 0.616.0 ± 1.9*10.1 ± 1.510.2 ± 1.520.4 ± 1.5*12.2 ± 1.112.4 ± 1.4
  • Data are means ± SEM. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

  • *Statistically significant vs. control subjects.

  • †Statistically significant vs. baseline values.

  • ‡Statistically significant vs. values after 30 days of treatment.

  • §Statistically significant vs. the same treatment group in patients without pre-diabetes in baseline conditions.

  • ‖Treatment-induced changes at the end of the treatment stronger than for the other drug in the same group of patients.