Table 1

Baseline and 1-year characteristics of Look AHEAD participants

VariableILI (intervention)DSE (control)P value deltas (ILI vs. DSE) 1 year
Baseline1 yearAbsolute changeRelative changeBaseline1 yearAbsolute changeRelative change
n4650
Measures of adiposity
    Hepatic fat4.2 (2.3−7.2)*2.9 (1.3−3.9)−2.3 (−4.3 to −0.4)−50.8 (−66.9 to −27.8)6.3 (2.7−12.7)4.9 (1.9−8.6)−1.1 (−3.1 to 1.2)−22.8 (−51.2 to 32.2)0.04
0−1 (%)7 (15.2)8 (17.4)5 (10.0)6 (12.2)
1.1−5.49 (%)24 (52.2)29 (63.0)18 (36.0)20 (40.8)
5.5−10 (%)5 (10.9)5 (10.9)9 (18.0)13 (26.5)
10.1−20 (%)8 (17.4)3 (6.5)14 (28.0)6 (12.2)
>20 (%)2 (4.4)1 (2.2)4 (8.0)4 (8.2)
    BMI34.7 ± 5.432.1 ± 5.2−2.6 ± 2.6−7.3 ± 6.835.3 ± 4.735.3 ± 4.8−0.02 ± 2.00.03 ± 5.7<0.001
25−29.9 kg/m28 (17.4)15 (68.2)3 (6.0)7 (14.0)
30−34.9 kg/m221 (44.7)20 (43.5)26 (52.0)19 (38.0)
35−39.9 kg/m212 (26.1)9 (19.6)14 (28.0)15 (30.0)
≥40 kg/m25 (10.9)2 (4.4)7 (14.0)9 (18.0)
    Weight (kg)98.1 ± 16.6*90.6 ± 14.9−8.5 ± 8.3−8.3 ± 6.9104.8 ± 16.7104.7 ± 16.9−0.05 ± 5.7−0.02 ± 5.2<0.001
    Waist circumference (cm)112.0 ± 11.7*102.4 ± 11.7−9.9 ± 11.1−8.4 ± 8.9115.0 ± 11.8113.5 ± 12.4−1.8 ± 6.5−1.4 ± 5.5<0.001
    Total fat (per 10 cm2)51.3 ± 15.446.4 ± 14.8−5.3 ± 11.0−8.8 ± 17.256.0 ± 14.556.0 ± 15.6−0.03 ± 7.80.5 ± 14.10.002
    Subcutaneous (per 10 cm2)28.8 ± 13.226.6 ± 11.8−2.9 ± 7.2−6.7 ± 19.229.1 ± 10.328.4 ± 10.7−0.8 ± 4.16−1.9 ± 16.80.02
    Intraperitoneal (per 10 cm2)15.5 ± 6.613.0 ± 5.5−2.5 ± 4.4−12.7 ± 28.518.7 ± 7.718.2 ± 7.3−0.4 ± 4.41.8 ± 24.40.02
    Retroperitoneal (per 10 cm2)5.8 ± 2.75.9 ± 3.10.2 ± 1.65.3 ± 27.47.1 ± 3.28.2 ± 4.11.1 ± 2.015.4 ± 26.60.05
Biochemical and metabolic parameters
    ALT (units/l)17.5 (14−28)20 (16−27)1 (−3 to 7)20 (17−26)19 (14−24)−2 (−6 to 1)0.31
    AST (units/l)18 (15−24)21 (18−25)3 (−2 to 5)19 (15−24)17 (15−22)0 (−3 to 2)0.45
    ALT−to−AST ratio1 (0.8−1.1)1 (0.8−1.2)0.1 (−0.2 to 0.2)0.8 (0.7−1)0.9 (0.8−1.1)0.1 (−0.04 to 0.2)0.19
    GGT (units/l)24 (18−36)22 (17.5−32.0)−3 (−6 to 1)25 (22−45)23 (18−35)−4 (−11 to 2)0.27
    A1C (%)7.1 ± 1.06.5 ± 0.9−0.7 ± 1.17.3 ± 1.07.1 ± 1.0−0.2 ± 0.80.04
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)47.9 ± 11.752.7 ± 12.04.1 ± 7.042.9 ± 12.044.2 ± 11.42 ± 6.50.11
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)111.5 (88−169)107 (66−139)−5 (−46 to 18)122.5 (91−194)121 (87−190)−5 (−31 to 20)0.23
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)118.0 ± 34.5107.3 ± 30.7−9.3 ± 23.3109.8 ± 29.998.1 ± 27.7−12.3 ± 25.00.53
HDL−to−triglyceride ratio2.3 (1.6−3.9)2.1 (1.31−3.1)−0.2 (−1.1 to 0.3)3.2 (2.1−5.4)2.6 (1.9−4.7)−0.2 (−0.9 to 0.4)0.4
Adipokines and cytokines
    IL−8 (pg/ml)31.7 (24.3−38.2)23.0 (17.0−29.6)−9.3 (−17.3 to 5.9)31.9 (21.1−41.7)21.0 (15.9−26.3)−9.3 (−21.1 to −0.1)0.65
    IL−10 (pg/ml)5.5 (4.8−5.9)6.8 (5.5−7.8)0.9 (−0.2 to 3.0)5.3 (4.8−6.4)7.1 (5.9−8.7)1.4 (0.04−3.4)0.08
    TNF−α (pg/ml)1.7 (1.2−2.6)1.7 (1.4−2.2)0.2 (−0.7 to 0.6)1.8 (1.4−2.8)1.9 (1.6−2.5)0.03 (−0.7 to 0.7)0.82
    Adiponectin (μg/ml)5.9 (4.5−7.2)11.5 (7.67−21.21)6.7 (2.4 to 10.8)5.4 (4.3−6.3)9.3 (6.8−15.2)3.8 (1.7 to 8.9)0.1
    Ghrelin (ng/ml)1.2 (0.9−2.0)1.4 (0.9−1.8)−0.03 (−0.9 to 0.7)1.2 (0.9−2.1)0.9 (0.8−1.2)−0.3 (−1.1 to 0.2)0.35
    Resistin (ng/ml)4.1 (2.9−6.6)6.8 (4.7−8.8)1.9 (0.5 to 2.6)4.5 (3.5−5.9)6.2 (4.8−8.2)1.5 (0.1 to 3.0)0.84
Medications
    No. of diabetes medications1.3 ± 0.81.2 ± 0.9−0.1 ± 0.51.4 ± 0.81.5 ± 0.80.1 ± 0.60.06
0−129 (63.0)30 (65.2)27 (44.0)22 (44.0)
212 (26.1)11 (23.9)19 (38.0)23 (46.0)
35 (10.9)5 (10.9)4 (8.0)5 (10.0)
    Use of insulin (%)1311−2108−20.94
    Use of metformin (%)52.2045.70−6.54854.206.20.38
    Use of thiazolidinedione (%)28.3023.90−4.43430.00−40.95
    Use of lipid-lowering drug (%)41.3*45.704.47070.800.80.82
  • Data are means ± SEM, median (interquartile range), or frequency (%).

  • *ILI vs. DSE baseline difference P > 0.05, adjusted for sex and baseline weight.