Table 1

Patients' characteristics according to the randomization arm

DIDStandardP*
n6763
Male sex (%)44.841.00.67
Age (years)35.4 ± 9.536.1 ± 9.40.63
Highest level of school education completed (%)0.23
    Low level (less than college degree)18.817.7
    Intermediate level (less than university degree)68.758.1
    High level (university degree)12.524.2
Duration17.1 ± 10.315.8 ± 10.70.37
Short-acting and/or long-acting analogs (%)80.680.90.96
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (%)19.419.10.96
Self-monitoring (years)14.7 ± 7.313.2 ± 8.40.10
No. of daily blood glucose tests2.3 ± 1.12.4 ± 1.10.77
A1C (%)8.2 ± 0.88.4 ± 0.70.19
Fasting glucose (mg(dl)183 ± 86177 ± 680.62
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)122 ± 17120 ± 110.50
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 774 ± 80.72
Weight (kg)69.9 ± 1269.4 ± 11.90.98
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)180 ± 30184 ± 340.40
Triglycerides (mg/dl)95 ± 5580 ± 540.03
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)58 ± 1561 ± 160.15
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)102 ± 28106 ± 270.37
Retinopathy (%)28.820.60.28
Lower-limb complications (%)01.60.34
Nephropathy (%)4.63.20.67
Symptomatic neuropathy (%)9.13.20.17
  • Data are means ± SD or frequency.

  • *P values refer to the χ2 test for categorical variables or the Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables.