Table 2

Demographic and medical information for the study population (a nationally representative sample of 1,547 nondiabetic U.S. adults in 2005–2006)*

DemographicsNormoglycemicPre-diabetesP value
n963584
Age (mean)39.6 (38.0–41.3)49.3 (46.8–51.9)<0.001
Male (%)43.1 (40.9–45.3)59.0 (53.3–64.6)<0.001
Race (%)
    White72.5 (67.2–77.7)69.1 (61.1–77.2)>0.2
    Black11.8 (7.9–15.6)10.4 (6.4–14.4)
    Hispanic10.8 (8.6–13.0)14.4 (9.7–19.1)
    Other/multiracial5.0 (2.4–7.5)6.0 (2.7–9.3)
Insured (%)79.7 (74.0–85.3)80.5 (75.1–85.8)>0.2
Current cigarette smoking (%)29.8 (24.5–35.2)19.7 (14.6–24.8)<0.001
Education (%)
    <High school12.3 (9.3–15.4)19.7 (15.1–24.4)<0.001
    High school graduate24.7 (20.7–28.8)24.4 (20.3–28.5)
    >Some college62.9 (57.2–68.7)55.9 (50.4–61.3)
Income (%)
    <Poverty level9.3 (7.0–11.6)10.1 (7.2–13.0)>0.2
    100–200% of poverty level17.4 (12.3–22.4)20.4 (14.7–26.2)
    >200% poverty level73.3 (68.1–78.6)73.3 (68.1–76.5)
BMI (mean)26.8 (26.3–27.4)30.7 (29.7–31.8)<0.001
Blood pressure (mean ± SD, mmHg)
    Systolic116.8 (115.4–118.1)125.2 (123.5–127.1)<0.001
    Diastolic67.9 (66.5–69.3)70.0 (68.8–71.2)0.013
Cholesterol (mean ± SD, mg/dl)
    Total194.4 (190.0–198.7)202.6 (197.1–208.1)0.004
    HDL57.1 (55.9–58.3)53.1 (51.6–54.6)<0.001
Past medical history of pre-diabetes (%)1.7 (1.1–2.4)4.8 (3.1–6.5)0.003
Interventions (%)
    Exercise recommended only23.7 (19.5–30.0)31.7 (23.3–40.2)<0.001
    Diet recommended only16.6 (12.4–20.7)27.4 (20.3–34.5)<0.001
Mean 10-year cardiovascular risk (mean)5.2 (3.9–6.4)8.3 (6.0–10.6)<0.001
Hemoglobin A1C (mean)5.1 (5.1–5.2)5.4 (5.4–5.5)<0.001
Fasting serum glucose (mean, mg/dl)91.2 (90.6–91.9)105 (104.2–105.9)<0.001
2-h postglucose load test (mean, mg/dl)92.8 (90.8–94.8)128.9 (125.5–132.4)<0.001
  • *The study population is a 2005–2006 nationally representative sample of nondiabetic U.S. adults. Statistical significance was tested using χ2 testing for differences in percentages and t testing for differences in means.