Table 1

Baseline characteristics and incidence of acute pancreatitis

NondiabeticDiabeticP value Nondiabetic vs. diabeticExenatideSitagliptinDiabetes controlP value
Exenatide vs. diabetes controlSitagliptin vs. diabetes control
Patient characteristics
    No. of subjects748,04138,6156,54515,82616,244
    Age (years)51.4 ± 8.352.7 ± 7.5<0.000151.4 ± 8.053.1 ± 7.352.9 ± 7.4<0.0001NS
    Female sex346,427 (46.3)17,662 (45.7)<0.053,699 (56.5)7,011 (44.3)6,952 (42.8)<0.0001<0.01
    Chronic disease score (1 year)16.8 ± 13.331.4 ± 16.8<0.000135.7 ± 17.831.2 ± 16.830.0 ± 16.0<0.0001<0.0001
Medications (diabetes and lipid: ≥1 claims during wash-in)
    No. of classes of diabetes medications01.5 ± 0.71.7 ± 0.71.7 ± 0.71.3 ± 0.4<0.0001<0.0001
    Sulfonylureas016,621 (43.0)3,220 (49.2)7,693 (48.6)5,708 (35.1)<0.0001<0.0001
    Metformin027,581 (71.4)5,335 (81.5)12,543 (79.3)9,703 (59.7)<0.0001<0.0001
    Thiazolidinediones014,627 (37.9)2,878 (44.0)6,751 (42.7)4,998 (30.8)<0.0001<0.0001
    Fibrates33,680 (4.5)4,032 (10.4)<0.0001719 (11.0)1,757 (11.1)1,556 (9.6)0.0014<0.0001
    Statins329,394 (44.0)21,746 (56.3)<0.00013,791 (57.9)9,256 (58.5)8,699 (53.5)<0.0001<0.0001
    Nicotinic acid16,694 (2.2)1,171 (3.0)<0.0001236 (3.6)524 (3.3)411 (2.5)<0.0001<0.0001
    Bile acid sequestrant5,685 (0.8)289 (0.7)NS58 (0.9)125 (0.8)106 (0.6)NSNS
    Ezetimibe25,967 (3.5)1,838 (4.8)<0.0001329 (5.0)844 (5.3)665 (4.1)<0.005<0.0001
Risk factors (medications): ≥1 claim during wash-in
    Azathioprine1,077 (0.1)57 (0.1)NS9 (0.1)27 (0.2)21 (0.1)NSNS
    Glucocorticoids51,353 (6.9)2,373 (6.1)<0.0001410 (6.3)969 (6.1)994 (6.1)NSNS
    Sulfonamides18,970 (2.5)1,482 (3.8)<0.0001295 (4.5)597 (3.8)590 (3.6)<0.005NS
    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs61,387 (8.2)3,765 (9.7)<0.0001678 (10.4)1,498 (9.5)1,589 (9.8)NSNS
    Mercaptopurine44 (0.01)16 (0.04)<0.00012 (0.03)7 (0.04)7 (0.04)NSNS
    Methyldopa689 (0.09)27 (0.07)NS7 (0.11)8 (0.05)12 (0.07)NSNS
    Tetracyclines21,073 (2.8)1,132 (2.9)NS188 (2.8)466 (2.9)478 (2.9)NSNS
Risk factors (ICD-9): ≥1 claim during wash-in
    Pancreatic disease455 (0.06)53 (0.14)<0.00014 (0.06)22 (0.14)27 (0.17)NSNS
    Alcohol abuse1,881 (0.25)60 (0.16)0.00027 (0.11)20 (0.13)33 (0.20)NSNS
    Biliary stone disease4,500 (0.60)323 (0.84)<0.000154 (0.83)148 (0.94)121 (0.74)NSNS
    Hypertriglyceridemia7,071 (0.95)661 (1.71)<0.0001135 (2.06)293 (1.85)233 (1.43)<0.001<0.005
    Cholestatic liver disease2,253 (0.30)104 (0.27)NS15 (0.23)46 (0.29)43 (0.26)NSNS
Pancreatitis
    Patient follow-up (years)1.2 ± 0.40.7 ± 0.5<0.00010.6 ± 0.50.8 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.5<0.0001<0.0001
    New acute pancreatitis1,746 (0.2)154 (0.4)<0.000122 (0.3)67 (0.4)65 (0.4)NSNS
    Incidence of new acute pancreatitis (cases/100,000 patient-years)190.5563.9569.9554.4571.9
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).