Table 1

Clinical and metabolic characteristics of the study subjects

CharacteristicProgressorNonprogressorP value
n53 (28)133 (72)
Age (years)9.78 ± 6.3512.79 ± 9.230.67
BMI z score*−0.67 (−1.56 to 0.53)−1.10 (−2.61 to 0.33)0.07
Race0.64
    White47 (88.68)116 (89.23)
    African American0 (0.00)2 (1.54)
    Hispanic4 (7.55)10 (7.69)
    Other2 (3.77)2 (1.54)
Sex0.53
    Male28 (52.83)77 (57.89)
    Female25 (47.17)56 (42.11)
Relationship to patient with diabetes0.09
    Sibling36 (67.92)72 (54.14)
    Offspring15 (28.30)38 (28.57)
    Parent1 (1.89)6 (4.51)
    Second-degree1 (1.89)17 (12.78)
Immunological factors
    ICA titer (JDF units)160.00 (80.00–320.00)80.00 (20.00–160.00)0.001
    IAA titer (nU/ml)385.10 (125.40–672.00)156.70 (73.70–343.00)0.001
ICA512 antibodies0.01
    Positive32 (64.00)50 (42.37)
    Negative18 (36.00)68 (57.63)
GAD antibodies0.674
    Positive38 (76.00)86 (72.88)
    Negative12 (24.00)32 (27.12)
Metabolic factors
    IVGTT
        Fasting glucose (mmol/l)87.66 ± 9.5487.12 ± 9.180.67
        Fasting insulin (mU/l)17.02 ± 10.0714.84 ± 9.500.17
        FPIR (μl/ml)145.22 ± 80.49163.90 ± 105.840.2
        HOMA-R3.79 ± 2.693.25 ± 2.200.16
        FPIR-to–HOMA-IR ratio44.28 ± 19.2059.93 ± 36.580.001
    OGTT
        Fasting glucose (mg/dl)86.26 ± 7.6986.18 ± 7.850.95
        2-h glucose (mg/dl)113.25 ± 18.71102.75 ± 19.170.001
        Peak C-peptide (nmol/l)5.09 ± 1.985.59 ± 2.260.16
        AUC C-peptide (nmol/l)472.13 ± 172.51523.96 ± 21.6980.12
  • Data are n (%), mean ± SD, or median (interquartile range).

  • *BMI z score from 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth chart. JDF, Juvenile Diabetes Foundation.