Table 1

Characteristics of pregnancies in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes according to prepregnancy care attendance

PPCNo PPCP value
Demographic data*n = 181n = 499
Age (years)
    Median (10th–90th centile)33 (26–39)31 (22–39)0.002
Ethnicity
    White166 (91.7)387 (77.6)0.0005
    Asian12 (6.6)90 (18.0)
    Other3 (1.7)22 (4.4)
Social deprivationn = 177n = 496
    Quintile 1 (least deprived)30 (16.9)65 (13.1)0.01
    Quintile 227 (15.3)67 (13.5)
    Quintile 347 (26.6)91 (18.3)
    Quintile 434 (19.2)100 (20.2)
    Quintile 5 (most deprived)39 (22.0)173 (34.9)
Weightn = 176n = 451
Weight at booking (kg)
    Median (10th–90th centile)71.5 (56.9–99.0)74.5 (58.0–105.0)0.03
BMI at booking (kg/m2)
    Median (10th–90th centile)26.1 (21.3–36.2)27.9 (22.2–38.1)0.005
Normal (BMI ≤24.9)73 (41.5)131 (29.0)
Overweight (BMI 25–29.9)45 (25.6)147 (32.6)
Obese (BMI ≥30)58 (33.0)173 (38.4)
Diabetes statusn = 181n = 499
Diabetes duration (years)
    Median (10th–90th centile)10 (2–27)7 (1–22)0.01
Maternal complications
    Retinopathy43 (23.8)91 (18.2)0.1
    Nephropathy5 (2.8)11 (2.2)0.9
    Neuropathy3 (1.7)10 (2.0)1.0
Glycaemic control
A1C prepregnancy (%)
    Median (10th–90th centile)7.2 (6.0–8.8)8.1 (6.1–11.7)<0.0001
A1C at first contact (%)
    Median (10th–90th centile)6.9 (5.8–8.8)7.6 (6.0–10.1)<0.0001
A1C <7.0%72/135 (53.3)113/298 (37.9)0.004
A1C first trimester (%)
    Median (10th–90th centile)6.9 (5.8–8.4)7.4 (6.0–9.7)<0.0001
A1C second trimester (%)
    Median (10th–90th centile)6.4 (5.4–7.4)6.5 (5.5–8.2)0.001
A1C third trimester (%)
    Median (10th–90th centile)6.4 (5.5–7.5)6.5 (5.3–7.9)0.05
Diabetes treatment at conception
    Diet alone4 (2.2)69 (13.8)<0.0001
    Insulin166 (91.7)317 (63.5)<0.0001
    Sulphonylurea0 (0)16 (3.2)0.03
    Metformin40 (22.1)124 (24.8)0.5
    Metformin alone12107
    Metformin and insulin2817
    Glitazone1 (0.6)21 (4.2)0.03
Diabetes therapy at delivery
    Insulin154/154 (100)384/408 (94.1)0.004
Pregnancy preparation
Preconception counselling150/181 (82.9)157/496 (31.7)<0.0001
EASIPOD leaflet read68/156 (43.6)67/451 (14.9)<0.0001
Planned pregnancy162/178 (91)168/448 (37.5)<0.0001
Folic acid preconception157/178 (88.2)112/420 (26.7)<0.0001
Potentially harmful medications
    ACE inhibitor at conception2 (1.1)23 (4.6)0.05
    Statin therapy at conception0 (0)38 (7.6)0.0003
Gestational age at booking (weeks)
    Median (10th–90th centile)6.7 (4.4–10.2)7.7 (5.1–14.6)<0.0001
Booked before 8/40117/167 (70.0)240/457 (52.5)0.0001
Smoking status at conception
Nonsmoker151 (83.9)348 (71.4)0.0002
Ex-smoker15 (8.3)34 (7.0)
Current smoker14 (7.8)105 (21.6)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Six pregnancies in women who moved into the area during pregnancy are excluded as details of their preconception counseling and prepregnancy care were lacking.

  • †The proportion of women achieving the more stringent NICE-recommended A1C target of <6.1% introduced during this study was 17.8% women with prepregnancy care (10.9% type 1 diabetes, 32% type 2 diabetes) vs. 10.4% (5.1% type 1 diabetes, 16.5% type 2 diabetes) without prepregnancy care (P = 0.05).