Table 2

Pregnancy outcomes of women with diabetes according to prepregnancy care attendance

PPCNo PPCP value
Pregnancy outcome1n = 181n = 495
    Miscarriage28 (15.5)71 (14.3)0.9
    Termination of pregnancy125
        Termination of pregnancy fetal abnormality090.2
        Termination of pregnancy non-diabetes associated*116
Delivery2n = 152n = 399
Gestational age at delivery (weeks)
    Median (10th–90th centile)37.6 (34.6–38.9)37.7 (34.7–39.0)0.3
Type of delivery
    SVD including instrumental53 (34.9)177 (44.4)0.05
    LSCS99 (65.1)222 (55.6)
        Planned LSCS49 (32.2)101 (25.3)0.6
        Emergency LSCS50 (32.9)121 (30.3)
Twins56
Perinatal morbidity
Prematurity3n = 150n = 397
    <37 weeks gestation50 (33.3)116 (29.2)0.4
    <34 weeks gestation9 (6.0)27 (6.8)0.9
Infant birth weight centiles4n = 145n = 372
    Large for gestational age70 (48.3)170 (45.7)0.7
    Extremely large for gestational age50 (34.4)114 (30.6)0.5
    Small for gestational age7 (4.8)32 (8.6)0.2
Neonatal care5n = 147n = 3860.5
    Home birth0 (0)1 (0.3)
    Postnatal ward74 (48.3)183 (47.4)
    Level 123 (15.6)50 (13.0)
    Level 237 (25.2)123 (31.9)
    Level 313 (8.8)29 (7.5)
Pregnancy outcomes6n = 152n = 408
Malformation1 (0.7)23 (5.6)0.02
Stillbirth1 (0.7)6 (1.5)0.7
Neonatal death0 (0)3 (0.7)0.7
Perinatal mortality1 (0.7)9 (2.2)0.4
Serious adverse outcome (malformation with or without termination of preganancy, stillbirth, or neonatal death)2 (1.3)32 (7.8)0.009
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • 1All pregnancies excluding four pregnancies in women who moved out of the area during pregnancy (n = 676).

  • *We are confident that all pregnancy termination data in women with prepregnancy care are included but cannot exclude an even higher number of nontherapeutic terminations in women without prepregnancy care.

  • 2All pregnancies after 20 weeks' gestation excluding 99 spontaneous miscarriages and 26 terminations (n = 551).

  • 3All pregnancies excluding four infants for whom data on gestational age at delivery were missing (n = 547).

  • 4All pregnancies resulting in live singleton births excluding 18 for whom birth weight centiles were missing (n = 517).

  • 5All pregnancies resulting in live singleton births excluding one infant in whom care level was not recorded (n = 533).

  • 6All pregnancies after 20 weeks' gestation (551) and 9 terminations for congenital malformation (n = 560).