Table 3

Independent predictors of serious adverse pregnancy outcome (major congenital malformation, stillbirth, or neonatal death) in pregnancies complicated by type 1 and type 2 diabetes

VariableOdds ratio (95% CI)P value
Age (years)11.01 (0.93–1.09)0.9
Type 1 diabetes23.41 (0.89–13.0)0.07
Duration of diabetes (years)31.06 (1.00–1.12)0.06
A1C at booking41.46 (1.16–1.85)0.001
European ethnicity0.36 (0.09–1.46)0.2
Social disadvantage1.00 (0.76–1.32)1.0
Prepregnancy care50.20 (0.05–0.89)0.03
BMI0.95 (0.88–1.03)0.2
Parity61.77 (0.75–4.14)0.2
Smoking1.41 (0.93–2.15)0.1
  • 1Increase in risk for every extra year of age.

  • 2Increase in risk for women with type 1 diabetes as opposed to type 2 diabetes.

  • 3Increase in risk for every extra year of diabetes duration.

  • 4Increase in risk for every extra 1% of A1C.

  • 5Decrease in risk for women who attend a prepregnancy care clinic as compared with women who did not attend prepregnancy care.

  • 6Increase in risk for multiparous women as opposed to primiparous women.