Table 1

Characteristics of women and newborns

NGTIGT
n2523
Mother's age (years)28.1 ± 0.729.0 ± 0.7
1st T BMI (kg/m2)24.3 ± 0.725.2 ± 0.7
1st T fasting glycemia (mmol/l)4.36 ± 0.084.31 ± 0.08
1st T fasting insulin (mU/l)5.56 ± 0.726.48 ± 0.74
1st T fasting serum leptin levels (ng/ml)28.9 ± 3.325.8 ± 3.6
Weight gain between 1st and 3rd T (kg)13.5 ± 2.688.7 ± 3.63*
3rd T fasting serum leptin levels (ng/ml)§44.1 ± 4.7225.7 ± 5.1*
Maternal side placenta mean leptin DNA methylation levels (%)28.1 ± 1.429.4 ± 1.4
Maternal side placenta leptin mRNA levels (AU)1.00 ± 0.021.01 ± 0.02
Birth weight (kg)3.35 ± 0.103.27 ± 0.10
Cord blood leptin levels (ng/ml)11.1 ± 1.27.2 ± 1.3*
Fetal side placenta mean leptin DNA methylation levels (%)28.5 ± 1.128.8 ± 1.2
Fetal side placenta leptin mRNA levels (AU)1.11 ± 0.021.10 ± 0.02
  • Data are mean ± SD. IGT was defined as a 2-h glucose ≥7.8 mmol/l after a 75-g OGTT performed at 24–28 weeks of gestation. AU, arbitrary units; 1st T, first trimester of gestation (between weeks 11 and 14); 2nd T, second trimester of gestation (between weeks 24 and 28); 3rd T, third trimester of gestation (between weeks 36 and 37).

  • *P < 0.0001 (unpaired t test).

  • n = 35 (NGT = 19 and IGT = 16).

  • §n = 43 (NGT = 23 and IGT = 20).

  • n = 39 (NGT = 21 and IGT = 18).