Table 2

Risk of acute pancreatitis associated with diabetes, antidiabetic drugs, and other factors (nested case-control analysis)

Case subjectsControl subjectsOdds ratio (95% CI)
UnivariateAdjusted*
n4195,000
Smoking
    Nonsmoker128 (30.5)1,795 (35.9)1 (referent)1 (referent)
    Smoker71 (16.9)623 (12.5)1.60 (1.18–2.17)1.48 (1.06–2.06)
    Former smoker175 (41.8)1,909 (38.2)1.29 (1.01–1.63)1.14 (0.89–1.47)
    Unknown45 (10.7)673 (13.5)0.94 (0.66–1.33)1.18 (0.81–1.72)
Alcohol use
    Nondrinker200 (47.7)2,082 (41.6)1 (referent)1 (referent)
    Between 1 and 7/week92 (22.0)1,236 (24.7)0.77 (0.60–1.00)0.86 (0.66–1.13)
    Between 8 and 29/week58 (13.8)895 (17.9)0.67 (0.50–0.91)0.75 (0.54–1.03)
    ≥30/week45 (10.7)291 (5.8)1.61 (1.14–2.27)1.49 (1.02–2.18)
    Unknown24 (5.7)496 (9.9)0.50 (0.33–0.78)0.72 (0.43–1.19)
Diabetes
    No243 (58.0)3,489 (69.8)1 (referent)1 (referent)
    Yes176 (42.0)1,511 (30.2)1.67 (1.36–2.05)1.37 (0.99–1.89)
Antidiabetic drugs
    Insulin
        Nonuse (366+)399 (95.2)4,650 (93.0)1 (referent)1 (referent)
        Current use (0–30)19 (4.5)328 (6.6)0.68 (0.42–1.08)0.35 (0.20–0.61)
        Past use (31–365)1 (0.2)22 (0.4)0.53 (0.07–3.94)0.31 (0.04–2.43)
    Metformin
        Nonuse (366+)328 (78.3)4,261 (85.2)1 (referent)1 (referent)
        Current use (0–30)75 (17.9)655 (13.1)1.49 (1.14–1.94)0.81 (0.56–1.15)
        Past use (31–365)16 (3.8)84 (1.7)2.47 (1.43–4.27)1.18 (0.62–2.25)
    Sulfonylureas
        Nonuse (366+)334 (79.7)4,460 (89.2)1 (referent)1 (referent)
        Current use (0–30)69 (16.5)474 (9.5)1.94 (1.48–2.56)1.25 (0.86–1.80)
        Past use (31–365)16 (3.8)66 (1.3)3.24 (1.85–5.65)2.58 (1.34–4.96)
    Thiazolidinediones
        Nonuse (366+)396 (94.5)4,864 (97.3)1 (referent)1 (referent)
        Current use (0–30)20 (4.8)117 (2.3)2.10 (1.29–3.41)1.25 (0.72–2.16)
        Past use (31–365)3 (0.7)19 (0.4)1.94 (0.57–6.58)1.23 (0.33–4.66)
    Other antidiabetic drugs
        Nonuse (366+)412 (98.3)4,962 (99.2)1 (referent)1 (referent)
        Current use (0–30)4 (1.0)27 (0.5)1.78 (0.62–5.12)1.23 (0.40–3.78)
        Past use (31–365)3 (0.7)11 (0.2)3.28 (0.91–11.82)2.56 (0.61–10.66)
Gastrointestinal disease
    No107 (25.5)2,318 (46.4)1 (referent)1 (referent)
    Yes312 (74.5)2,682 (53.6)2.52 (2.01–3.16)1.91 (1.50–2.45)
BMI
    20–24 kg/m2*95 (22.7)1,242 (24.8)1 (referent)1 (referent)
    <20 kg/m215 (3.6)164 (3.3)1.20 (0.68–2.11)1.13 (0.63–2.02)
    25–29 kg/m2154 (36.8)1,809 (36.2)1.11 (0.85–1.45)0.99 (0.75–1.31)
    ≥30 kg/m2131 (31.3)1,337 (26.7)1.28 (0.97–1.69)0.92 (0.68–1.24)
    Unknown24 (5.7)448 (9.0)0.70 (0.44–1.11)1.01 (0.60–1.72)
Paracetamol
    Nonuse (366+)240 (57.3)3,620 (72.4)1 (referent)1 (referent)
    Current use (0–30)105 (25.1)732 (14.6)2.16 (1.70–2.76)1.65 (1.25–2.18)
    Past use (31–365)74 (17.7)648 (13.0)1.72 (1.31–2.26)1.38 (1.02–1.86)
ACE inhibitors
    Nonuse (366+)3,892 (77.8)280 (66.8)1 (referent)1 (referent)
    Current use (0–30)978 (19.6)124 (29.6)1.76 (1.41–2.20)1.37 (1.04–1.80)
    Past use (31–365)130 (2.6)15 (3.6)1.60 (0.93–2.77)1.12 (0.61–2.04)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Adjusted for all variables included in the table plus age, sex, Townsend index, ischemic heart disease, and exposure to antibiotics, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, NSAIDs (including aspirin and coxibs), and other antihypertensive drugs.

  • †Includes gallstones, biliary tract disease, cholecystitis, gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, and others.