Table 1

Characteristics of KEEP female participants with GDM alone, with overt diabetes, and without diabetes

CharacteristicsGDMOvert diabetesNo diabetesP value
n57112,10025,045
Age (years)51.5 ± 14.559.0 ± 13.553.4 ± 15.4<0.0001
Race (%)0.0003
    White46.851.350.6
    African American29.932.132.9
    Other23.316.616.5
BMI (kg/m2)30.0 ± 7.232.6 ± 7.529.5 ± 6.9<0.0001
Waist circumference (inches)*36.6 ± 5.441.3 ± 6.737.5 ± 6.1<0.0001
Hypertension (%)64.684.267.9<0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128.7 ± 19.9134.7 ± 19.8130.0 ± 19.3<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79.0 ± 11.878.3 ± 11.578.9 ± 11.3<0.0001
Dyslipidemia (%)39.248.934.1<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)203.0 ± 36.6196.3 ± 42.7204.2 ± 39.8<0.0001
Triglycerides (mg/dl)149.3 ± 99.9172.3 ± 121.4137.8 ± 91.6<0.0001
Current tobacco use (%)11.08.29.30.0004
Alcohol use (%)56.246.857.5<0.0001
Family history of kidney disease (%)15.618.318.00.2,487
Family history of diabetes (%)51.567.949.7<0.0001
Family history of hypertension (%)86.078.485.6<0.0001
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dl)96.4 ± 13.0135.3 ± 60.395.0 ± 13.4<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD or %.

  • *Data on waist circumference are available from 2008 (n = 7,070).

  • †Calculation including only participants with fasting glucose data available (n = 9,071).