Table 3

Association of GDM and overt diabetes with prevalent microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, CKD stages 1–2, and CKD stages 3–5 among KEEP female participants

ConditionGDMP valueOvert diabetesP valueNo diabetes
Microalbuminuria vs. normal (n = 37,305)
    Univariate analysis1.34 (1.02–1.77)0.041.93 (1.80–2.07)<0.0011.00 (referent)
    Multivariate analysis*1.36 (1.03–1.80)0.031.67 (1.55–1.80)<0.0011.00 (referent)
Macroalbuminuria vs. normal (n = 34,101)
    Univariate analysis1.13 (0.42–3.07)0.83.51 (2.87–4.29)<0.0011.00 (referent)
    Multivariate analysis*1.13 (0.41–3.09)0.82.68 (2.16–3.31)<0.0011.00 (referent)
Macroalbuminuria vs. microalbuminuria (n = 4,026)
    Univariate analysis0.85 (0.30–2.36)0.71.82 (1.47–2.24)<0.0011.00 (referent)
    Multivariate analysis*0.93 (0.33–2.64)0.91.56 (1.25–1.96)<0.0011.00 (referent)
CKD stages 1–2 vs. no CKD (n = 31,581)
    Univariate analysis1.54 (1.16–2.05)0.0031.89 (1.75–2.04)<0.0011.00 (referent)
    Multivariate analysis1.54 (1.16–2.05)0.0031.68 (1.55–1.82)<0.0011.00 (referent)
CKD stages 3–5 vs. no CKD (n = 34,833)
    Univariate analysis0.84 (0.65–1.09)0.21.73 (1.64–1.83)1.00 (referent)
    Multivariate analysis0.94 (0.71–1.25)0.71.20 (1.12–1.28)<0.0011.00 (referent)
CKD stages 3–5 vs. stages 1–2 (n = 9,018)<0.001
    Univariate analysis0.55 (0.38–0.79)0.0010.92 (0.84–1.00)0.061.00 (referent)
    Multivariate analysis0.70 (0.46–1.05)0.080.75 (0.68–0.84)<0.0011.00 (referent)
  • Data are ORs (95% CI).

  • *Adjusted for age, race, BMI, current smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, dyslipidemia, eGFR, and family history of kidney disease.

  • †Adjusted for age, race, BMI, current smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and family history of kidney disease.