Table 2

Incident diabetes according to total magnesium intake quintiles

Quintiles of total magnesium intakePtrend*
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)
Total cohort (n = 4,497)
    Magnesium intake (mg/1,000 kcal)99.9 (91.7–106.1)121.0 (116.5–125.2)140.1 (134.8–145.5)162.1 (155.8–169.3)201.5 (187.7–233.3)
    No. of events/participants81/89985/90077/89952/90035/899
    Model 11.000.95 (0.70–1.30)0.91 (0.66–1.26)0.63 (0.43–0.92)0.46 (0.30–0.71)<0.01
    Model 21.000.89 (0.65–1.22)0.88 (0.63–1.24)0.72 (0.49–1.05)0.52 (0.33–0.82)<0.01
    Model 31.000.96 (0.70–1.32)0.97 (0.68–1.38)0.77 (0.51–1.18)0.53 (0.32–0.86)<0.01
Supplement users (n = 1,205)
    Magnesium intake (mg/1,000 kcal)123.6 (112.6–133.0)151.0 (146.1–156.0)172.6 (166.6–179.0)196.0 (188.9–203.7)248.8 (233.3–290.4)
    No. of events/participants32/24116/24117/2416/2416/241
    Model 31.000.66 (0.33–1.30)0.70 (0.34–1.44)0.24 (0.09–0.67)0.32 (0.10–0.96)0.01
Supplement nonusers (n = 3,292)
    Magnesium intake (mg/1,000 kcal)97.0 (89.4–102.0)115.1 (111.0–119.0)130.1 (126.5–134.2)149.7 (144.2–154.5)180.0 (169.3–196.6)
    No. of events/participants59/65858/65954/65845/65937/658
    Model 31.000.96 (0.66–1.41)0.79 (0.53–1.18)0.79 (0.50–1.26)0.74 (0.44–1.26)0.21
  • Data are medians (interquartile range) for magnesium intake and HRs (95% CI) for models.

  • *All models were constructed by the Cox proportional hazards model. The median magnesium level in each quintile was created for the trend tests. Model 1: adjustment for age (continuous), sex, ethnicity (African American or Caucasian), and study center; model 2: model 1 with additional adjustment for education (continuous), smoking status (never, former, or current), alcohol consumption (none, 0.1–9.9, 10–19.9, or ≥20 g/day), physical activity (quintiles), family history of diabetes, BMI (<25, 25–29.9, or ≥30 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (continuous), and total energy intake (quintiles); model 3: model 2 with additional adjustment for dietary intakes (quintiles) of saturated fat and crude fiber.