Table 3

Parameter estimates for medical expenditure models for youth in the U.S., 2007

ParametersTotal#Outpatient#Inpatient (first part)Inpatient (second part)#Drug#
Constant9.04 ± 0.07*8.26 ± 0.07*−1.52 ± 0.18*8.66 ± 0.16*8.34 ± 0.04*
Mean age (years)−0.003 ± 0.003−0.01 ± 0.004−0.06 ± 0.01*0.03 ± 0.01*−0.005 ± 0.002*
Sex: Girl (= 1)0.04 ± 0.030.10 ± 0.03*−0.04 ± 0.080.14 ± 0.08−0.05 ± 0.02*
Census regions
    Midwest (= 1)−0.09 ± 0.04*0.02 ± 0.05−0.26 ± 0.14*−0.03 ± 0.10−0.16 ± 0.03*
    South (= 1)−0.14 ± 0.05*−0.13 ± 0.05*−0.28 ± 0.13*0.04 ± 0.12−0.16 ± 0.03*
    West (= 1)−0.08 ± 0.06−0.12 ± 0.06*−0.06 ± 0.150.06 ± 0.15−0.09 ± 0.04*
Health plan
    Non-PPO (= 1)0.06 ± 0.040.03 ± 0.030.13 ± 0.090.13 ± 0.130.01 ± 0.02
Urbanity of residence
    Urban (= 1)0.05 ± 0.03−0.01 ± 0.03−0.08 ± 0.09−0.003 ± 0.080.09 ± 0.02*
Asthma (= 1)0.49 ± 0.09*0.43 ± 0.10*0.55 ± 0.17*0.39 ± 0.15*0.30 ± 0.07*
DKA (= 1)0.53 ± 0.03*0.25 ± 0.03*3.17 ± 0.08*−0.10 ± 0.10−0.17 ± 0.02*
Severe hypoglycemia (= 1)0.36 ± 0.05*0.39 ± 0.05*0.72 ± 0.12*0.33 ± 0.10*0.08 ± 0.04*
−Log likelihood76,32870,0362,44312,93969,426
Likelihood ratio χ21,960
  • Data are coefficients ± SE.

  • *P < 0.05. Boys, northeast region, rural residence, PPO health plan, and without asthma are treated as references.

  • #Estimated using generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution.

  • †Estimated using logistic regression model.