Table 2

Hazard ratios (95% CIs) for microvascular and macrovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes

Covariate adjustmentMicrovascularMacrovascular
Minor depressionMajor depressionMinor depressionMajor depression
Unadjusted1.54 (1.16–2.03)1.48 (1.16–1.88)1.17 (0.92–1.47)1.20 (0.98–1.47)
Adjusted for
    Any prior event*1.49 (1.13–1.97)1.47 (1.15–1.87)1.09 (0.86–1.37)1.13 (0.92–1.38)
    Any prior event and demographic characteristics*†1.48 (1.11–1.95)1.67 (1.30–2.15)1.11 (0.88–1.40)1.49 (1.21–1.83)
    Any prior event, demographic characteristics, and clinical characteristics*†‡1.33 (1.00–1.76)1.38 (1.07–1.77)1.06 (0.83–1.33)1.34 (1.08–1.65)
    Any prior event, demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and self-care and diabetes control measures*†‡§1.31 (0.98–1.74)1.36 (1.05–1.76)1.00 (0.79–1.27)1.25 (1.00–1.54)
  • Hazard ratios compare individuals with minor or major depression to those without depression at baseline and are based on models that match on years of follow-back.

  • *Any prior microvascular or macrovascular event.

  • †Demographic characteristics at baseline, including age, sex, race, education, and marital status.

  • ‡Clinical characteristics at baseline, including diabetes duration, treatment intensity, expected costs (RxRisk), and hypertension diagnosis.

  • §Self-care behaviors and disease control measures at baseline, including BMI, smoking, limited physical activity, and A1C.