Table 2

HRs (95% CI) for incident diabetes in relation to body silhouette history in the E3N cohort (1990–2007)

Cases of diabetes/person-years (2,534/1,381,311)HR (95% CI)
Model 1: adjusted for year of birthModel 2: adjusted for confounders*Model 3: adjusted for confounders* and BMI†
Birth weight
    Low242/106,5841.47 (1.29–1.69)1.31 (1.13–1.53)1.40 (1.20–1.62)
    Medium1,469/945,893111
    High160/118,0330.87 (0.74–1.03)0.82 (0.70–0.97)0.72 (0.61–0.85)
    Missing663/210,8022.27 (2.07–2.49)1.21 (1.04–1.41)1.19 (1.02–1.39)
    Ptrend<0.001<0.0001<0.0001
Body silhouette
    At 8 years
        11,440/711,4421.35 (1.18–1.54)1.35 (1.18–1.54)1.66 (1.45–1.9)
        2423/276,2901.06 (0.91–1.24)1.10 (0.95–1.29)1.28 (1.10–1.5)
        3260/178,920111
        ≥4255/144,2551.22 (1.03–1.45)1.15 (0.96–1.36)1.09 (0.92–1.30)
        Missing156/70,4041.46 (1.20–1.78)1.21 (0.99–1.48)1.45 (1.19–1.77)
        Ptrend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
    At puberty
        1599/296,0091.14 (1.02–1.28)1.16 (1.03–1.31)1.48 (1.32–1.67)
        2808/430,1641.09 (0.98–1.22)1.08 (0.97–1.20)1.23 (1.10–1.37)
        3545/320,388111
        ≥4449/285,6080.93 (0.82–1.06)0.90 (0.79–1.02)0.81 (0.71–0.92)
        Missing133/49,1431.51 (1.25–1.82)1.15 (0.95–1.39)1.26 (1.04–1.53)
        Ptrend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
    At 20–25 years
        1250/139,0620.94 (0.81–1.08)0.99 (0.86–1.14)1.43 (1.23–1.65)
        2894/564,9020.85 (0.78–0.94)0.90 (0.82–0.99)1.13 (1.03–1.25)
        3840/454,936111
        ≥4454/188,6651.29 (1.15–1.45)1.15 (1.03–1.29)0.84 (0.75–0.95)
        Missing96/33,7461.48 (1.20–1.83)1.10 (0.89–1.36)1.22 (0.98–1.51)
        Ptrend<0.00010.001<0.0001
    At 35–40 years
        ≤2352/439,3320.52 (0.46–0.59)0.59 (0.52–0.66)0.78 (0.69–0.88)
        3861/572,537111
        4706/251,0021.87 (1.69–2.06)1.55 (1.40–1.71)1.17 (1.05–1.29)
        ≥5516/82,5734.22 (3.78–4.71)2.72 (2.43–3.05)1.17 (1.03–1.32)
        Missing99/35,8681.76 (1.43–2.16)1.32 (1.07–1.63)1.15 (0.93–1.42)
        Ptrend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
  • n = 91,453.

  • *Model 2: includes physical activity (<34/34–47/47–62/≥ 62 MET-h/week), education (≤9/10–11/12–14/15–16/≥17 years), prematurity (no/yes), family history of diabetes (none/only one parent/both parents), smoking (never/former/current smoker, time-dependent variable), high cholesterol level (no/yes), hypertension (no/yes, time-dependent variable), menopausal status (no/yes, time-dependent variable), hormone replacement therapy (never/ever, time-dependent variable), oral contraceptive pills (never/ever), parity and age at first child (nulliparous/first child at <30 years, 1–2 children/first child at <30 years, 3+ children/first child at ≥30 years), and age at menarche (≤12/13/≥14 years old), according to birth cohort (1,925–1,930/1,930–1,935/1,935–1,940/1,940–1,945/1,945–1,950).

  • †Model 3: confounders as above and further adjustment for adult BMI as a time-dependent variable.