Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to ethnicity among postmenopausal women in the WHI-OS

Race/ethnicity
WhiteAfrican AmericanHispanic/LatinoAsian/Pacific Islander
n1,9221,123423245
Mean age (years)64 ± 6.961.0 ± 6.760 ± 6.864 ± 7.6
Mean BMI (kg/m2)29 ± 6.731 ± 7.129 ± 5.825 ± 4.5
Current smoker (%)61254
Current drinker (%)69515140
Total energy expenditure from recreational physical activity (METs/week)12 ± 13.311 ± 13.511 ± 14.914 ± 14.4
Current postmenopausal hormone use (%)43314250
Nutrient intakes
    Carbohydrate (% of energy)52 ± 9.452 ± 9.953 ± 10.156 ± 8.5
    Protein (% of energy)17 ± 3.316 ± 3.516 ± 3.616 ± 3.1
    Fat (% of energy)31 ± 8.533 ± 8.531 ± 9.629 ± 7.6
    Dietary fiber (g/day)17 ± 7.014 ± 7.116 ± 7.815 ± 6.5
    Total magnesium intake (mg/day)*335 ± 198261 ± 170279 ± 191277 ± 152
    Dietary magnesium intake (mg/day)†263 ± 100222 ± 140229 ± 127219 ± 96
Markers of inflammation
    hs-CRP (mg/l)5.01 ± 7.25.91 ± 15.44.66 ± 5.52.11 ± 3.95
    IL-6 (pg/ml)3.26 ± 5.03.68 ± 4.583.14 ± 3.672.87 ± 6.24
    TNF-α-R2 (pg/ml)2,785 ± 8712,423 ± 8192,517 ± 7672,292 ± 688
Markers of endothelial dysfunction
    sICAM-1 (ng/ml)328 ± 94270 ± 106319 ± 103255 ± 79
    sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)819 ± 278639 ± 224738 ± 301690 ± 243
    E-selectin (ng/ml)47.0 ± 28.145.4 ± 24.548.7 ± 28.140.2 ± 23.5
  • Data are means ±SD unless otherwise indicated. n = 3,713.

  • *Total magnesium intake includes intake from dietary and supplemental sources.

  • †Dietary magnesium includes intake from diet alone. MET, metabolic equivalent.