Table 2

Mean plasma concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation by quintile of dietary magnesium intake among postmenopausal women in the WHI-OS

Dietary magnesiumP for linear trend
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5
Median (mg/day)168.5204.4233.2263.1310.2
hs-CRP (mg/l)
    Model 1*2.89 (2.59–3.23)2.58 (2.31–2.87)2.31 (2.07–2.58)2.60 (2.31–2.92)2.29 (2.03–2.58)0.003
    Model 2†2.99 (2.61–3.41)2.61 (2.33–2.92)2.32 (2.07–2.59)2.57 (2.28–2.90)2.23 (1.96–2.55)0.009
    Model 3‡3.08 (2.67–3.55)2.63 (2.34–2.94)2.31 (2.07–2.59)2.53 (2.24–2.86)2.16 (1.87–2.50)0.005
IL-6 (pg/ml)
    Model 1*2.91 (2.70–3.13)2.63 (2.45–2.83)2.46 (2.28–2.64)2.28 (2.11–2.46)2.27 (2.10–2.46)<0.0001
    Model 2†2.86 (2.62–3.13)2.62 (2.43–2.82)2.45 (2.28–2.64)2.29 (2.11–2.48)2.30 (2.11–2.51)0.0005
    Model 3‡2.91 (2.64–3.19)2.63 (2.44–2.84)2.45 (2.27–2.64)2.27 (2.09–2.46)2.26 (2.05–2.49)0.0005
TNF-α-R2 (pg/ml)
    Model 1*2,461 (2,392–2,532)2,506 (2,437–2,577)2,426 (2,357–2,497)2,424 (2,352–2,498)2,338 (2,267–2,411)0.0006
    Model 2†2,429 (2,347–2,514)2,493 (2,422–2,566)2,423 (2,354–2,494)2,434 (2,360–2,510)2,361 (2,282–2,443)0.10
    Model 3‡2,422 (2,335–2,513)2,493 (2,421–2,567)2,422 (2,353–2,493)2,433 (2,358–2,511)2,358 (2,270–2,448)0.15
sICAM-1 (ng/ml)
    Model 1*300 (291–310)303 (293–313)300 (290–311)303 (292–314)293 (282–304)0.31
    Model 2†303 (291–316)304 (294–315)300 (290–311)302 (291–314)291 (279–303)0.13
    Model 3‡301 (288–315)304 (293–315)300 (290–311)302 (291–314)292 (278–305)0.29
sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)
    Model 1*695 (673–718)677 (655–699)673 (651–695)675 (652–699)665 (642–689)0.06
    Model 2†703 (676–731)680 (657–703)673 (651–696)673 (650–697)660 (634–686)0.05
    Model 3‡707 (678–738)681 (658–704)673 (651–696)671 (648–696)656 (628–685)0.04
E-selectin (ng/ml)
    Model 1*45.5 (43.2–47.8)42.5 (40.4–44.7)40.8 (38.8–43.0)40.8 (38.7–43.1)40.7 (38.5–43.0)0.0007
    Model 2†43.9 (41.2–46.7)41.9 (39.8–44.1)40.7 (38.6–42.9)41.3 (39.1–43.6)41.8 (39.4–44.5)0.43
    Model 3‡43.8 (41.0–46.8)41.9 (39.7–44.2)40.7 (38.7–42.9)41.4 (39.1–43.8)42.1 (39.4–45.1)0.62
  • Data are adjusted geometric means (95% CI).

  • *Model 1 adjusted for matching factors (age, race/ethnicity, clinical center, and time of blood draw), smoking, alcohol, total energy expenditure from recreational physical activity/week, total energy intake, BMI, and case-control status.

  • †Model 2 adjusted for variables in model 1 plus dietary fiber intake.

  • ‡Model 3 adjusted for variables in model 2 plus fruit and vegetable intake, folate intake, and total saturated and trans fat intake. Q, quintile.