Table 3

Linear regression coefficients for the relation between each increase of 100 mg/day in dietary magnesium intake and log-transformed biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction among postmenopausal women in the WHI-OS

Ethnicity and biomarkersDietary magnesium
Model 1*Model 2†Model 3‡
All (n = 3,713)
    hs-CRP (mg/l)−0.12 ± 0.04 (0.004)§−0.17 ± 0.06 (0.006)−0.23 ± 0.07 (0.002)
    IL-6 (pg/ml)−0.15 ± 0.03 (<0.0001)−0.12 ± 0.04 (0.005)−0.14 ± 0.05 (0.004)
    TNF-α-R2 (pg/ml)−0.04 ± 0.01 (0.0004)−0.04 ± 0.02 (0.02)−0.04 ± 0.02 (0.06)
    sICAM-1 (ng/ml)−0.01 ± 0.01 (0.30)−0.04 ± 0.02 (0.05)−0.03 ± 0.02 (0.15)
    sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)−0.02 ± 0.01 (0.13)‡−0.04 ± 0.02 (0.05)−0.04 ± 0.02 (0.07)
    E-selectin (ng/ml)−0.07 ± 0.02 (0.0005)−0.02 ± 0.03 (0.47)−0.01 ± 0.03 (0.71)
White (n = 1,922)
    hs-CRP (mg/l)−0.07 ± 0.05 (0.13)−0.16 ± 0.07 (0.03)−0.27 ± 0.09 (0.004)
    IL-6 (pg/ml)−0.14 ± 0.04 (0.0001)−0.09 ± 0.05 (0.08)−0.19 ± 0.07 (0.006)
    TNF-α-R2 (pg/ml)−0.06 ± 0.01 (<0.0001)−0.05 ± 0.02 (0.03)−0.04 ± 0.03 (0.13)
    sICAM-1 (ng/ml)−0.03 ± 0.01 (0.01)−0.02 ± 0.02 (0.37)−0.02 ± 0.02 (0.41)
    sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)−0.03 ± 0.02 (0.07)−0.02 ± 0.02 (0.38)−0.03 ± 0.03 (0.30)
    E-selectin (ng/ml)−0.09 ± 0.03 (0.0003)−0.04 ± 0.04 (0.25)−0.03 ± 0.05 (0.48)
African American (n = 1,123)
    hs-CRP (mg/l)−0.17 ± 0.07 (0.02)−0.21 ± 0.11 (0.06)−0.34 ± 0.14 (0.01)
    IL-6 (pg/ml)−0.18 ± 0.05 (0.0006)−0.11 ± 0.08 (0.16)−0.17 ± 0.10 (0.08)
    TNF-α-R2 (pg/ml)−0.02 ± 0.02 (0.37)−0.007 ± 0.03 (0.83)−0.008 ± 0.04 (0.83)
    sICAM-1 (ng/ml)0.009 ± 0.04 (0.79)−0.08 ± 0.05 (0.12)−0.08 ± 0.07 (0.21)
    sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)−0.02 ± 0.02 (0.50)−0.04 ± 0.04 (0.24)−0.03 ± 0.04 (0.42)
    E-selectin (ng/ml)−0.05 ± 0.03 (0.13)−0.01 ± 0.05 (0.80)−0.02 ± 0.06 (0.79)
Hispanic (n = 423)
    hs-CRP (mg/l)−0.12 ± 0.10 (0.25)−0.16 ± 0.16 (0.34)0.07 ± 0.20 (0.73)
    IL-6 (pg/ml)−0.07 ± 0.08 (0.43)−0.16 ± 0.13 (0.21)−0.03 ± 0.16 (0.87)
    TNF-α-R2 (pg/ml)−0.04 ± 0.03 (0.19)−0.09 ± 0.05 (0.05)−0.09 ± 0.06 (0.12)
    sICAM-1 (ng/ml)−0.04 ± 0.03 (0.20)−0.06 ± 0.05 (0.22)0.01 ± 0.06 (0.85)
    sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)−0.01 ± 0.04 (0.71)−0.10 ± 0.06 (0.12)−0.14 ± 0.08 (0.07)
    E-selectin (ng/ml)−0.07 ± 0.06 (0.22)−0.05 ± 0.09 (0.55)−0.07 ± 0.11 (0.51)
Asian/Pacific Islander (n = 245)
    hs-CRP (mg/l)−0.14 ± 0.34 (0.68)−0.04 ± 0.52 (0.94)0.23 ± 0.65 (0.72)
    IL-6 (pg/ml)−0.36 ± 0.14 (0.01)−0.33 ± 0.21 (0.12)−0.48 ± 0.27 (0.07)
    TNF-α-R2 (pg/ml)0.04 ± 0.05 (0.39)0.001 ± 0.07 (0.98)0.02 ± 0.09 (0.81)
    sICAM-1 (ng/ml)0.08 ± 0.05 (0.11)0.03 ± 0.08 (0.73)0.12 ± 0.09 (0.19)
    sVCAM-1 (ng/ml)0.02 ± 0.06 (0.71)−0.06 ± 0.09 (0.48)−0.07 ± 0.11 (0.52)
    E-selectin (ng/ml)0.09 ± 0.09 (0.30)0.22 ± 0.13 (0.09)0.44 ± 0.16 (0.008)
  • Data are means ± SEM (P). n = 3,713.

  • *Model 1 adjusted for matching factors (age, race/ethnicity, clinical center, and time of blood draw), smoking, alcohol, total energy expenditure/week, total energy intake, BMI, and case-control status.

  • †Model 2 adjusted for variables in model 1 plus dietary fiber.

  • ‡Model 3 adjusted for variables in model 2 plus fruit, vegetable, folate intake, and total saturated and trans fat intake.

  • §P values are from multiple linear regression models for the relation between dietary magnesium intake (per 100 mg/day increase) and log-transformed biomarkers.