Table 2

Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years) of each pulmonary outcome in all KPNC members aged ≥18 years, by diabetes status

Full cohortSurvey responder
Pneumonia*
    No diabetes2.27 (2.24–2.29)1.96 (1.85–2.08)
    Diabetes5.88 (5.56–6.21)5.76 (5.40–6.11)
Asthma*
    No diabetes0.22 (0.21–0.23)0.16 (0.12–0.21)
    Diabetes0.48 (0.36–0.61)0.41 (0.31–0.53)
COPD*
    No diabetes0.60 (0.59–0.62)0.52 (0.47–0.58)
    Diabetes0.91 (0.80–1.04)0.87 (0.75–0.98)
Fibrosis*
    No diabetes0.09 (0.09–0.10)0.10 (0.07–0.13)
    Diabetes0.14 (0.12–0.16)0.13 (0.11–0.16)
Lung cancer†
    No diabetes0.51 (0.50–0.52)0.66 (0.60–0.73)
    Diabetes0.47 (0.44–0.50)0.66 (0.62–0.71)
  • Data are age- and sex-adjusted rates (95% CI).

  • *Listed as the primary discharge diagnosis or underlying cause of death in the Kaiser Permanente databases.

  • †Identified through the KPNC Cancer Registry.